The TESDA PHOTOGRAPHY NC II COURSE consists of competencies that a person must achieve to take pictures of people, places, objects, and events and tries to artistically capture and evoke a mood, feeling, or drama surrounding a particular subject using a camera. The work of a photographer is not only limited to the actual use of the camera and proper lighting, but also includes all of the steps in the development of the image up to the presentation of the final product.

This Qualification is packaged from the competency map of the Visual Arts Sector.

A student who has achieved this Qualification is competent to be:

  • Professional Photographer


Trainees or students wishing to enroll in these course qualifications should possess the following requirements:

  • Be able to read, comprehend, and discuss printed information in English
  • Be able to write simple statements, recognize numbers, and perform basic numeric calculations
  • Must bring a film or digital SLR camera

This list does not include specific institutional requirements such as educational attainment, appropriate work experience, and others that may be required of the trainees by the school or training center delivering the TVET program.


Level: NC II
Nominal Training Duration :

(Basic Competency) 18 Hours
(Common Competency) 18 Hours
(Core Competency) 96 Hours

Total Duration: 132 Hours

This course is designed to enhance the knowledge, desirable attitudes and skills in operating camera and composing a subject, setting up studio lights, equipment and accessories, performing post-production stages, and presenting finished products in accordance with industry standards.


This units of competency comprising this qualification include Basic, Common, and Core Competencies.

To obtain this TESDA course in PHOTOGRAPHY NC II, all units prescribed for this qualification must be achieved.

These units of competency comprising this qualification include the following:

VSA313301 Operate camera and compose a subject
VSA313302 Set up studio lights, equipment and accessories
VSA313303 Perform post capture processing
VSA313304 Present finished products
TRS311201* Develop and update industry knowledge
TRS311203* Perform computer operations
TRS311205* Provide effective customer service
VSA313201 Develop self as an artist
VSA313202 Select and prepare work for exhibition
500311105 Participate in workplace communication
500311106 Work in a team environment
500311107 Practice career professionalism
500311108 Practice occupational health and safety procedures

This section gives the details and contents of the units of competency required in PHOTOGRAPHY NC II. These units of competency are categorized into basic, common and core competencies.


This section gives the details of the contents of the core units of competency required in PHOTOGRAPHY NC II.


This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to operate camera, position the camera, select appropriate lens and compose the shots to achieve the required image.

  1. Operate the camera
    • Camera is identified and selected appropriately for specific purpose
    • Camera is operated safely in accordance with manufacturer’s instruction
  2. Select and use lens
    • Lenses are selected according to technical and subject requirement.
    • Focusing techniques of lens are applied.
  3. Address lighting and exposure
    • Quality and quantity of available lights are assessed to determine appropriate exposure and lighting effect.
    • Corrective actions are taken to address changing or inadequate lighting conditions.
  4. Compose a subject
    • Subject is identified and visualized according to graphic elements and rules of composition
    • Subject is composed to meet aesthetic requirements and provided the correct visual interpretation of work requirements
  5. Experiment with techniques to capture photographic images
    • Techniques are appropriately identified and selected for the photographic subject matter
    • Controls are selected and use to effect image capture and to ensure correct exposure
    • Techniques are tested to achieve changes to subject appearance as required
    • Corrective filters are selected and used to meet the creative and technical requirements of the shots
    • Corrective filters are used to ensure that color balance and light conditions are attained
  6. Review images
    • Images are viewed from the camera LCD, computer or TV monitor.
    • Results are evaluated to ensure correct exposure and the desired outcome for the subject matter. 6.3. Images are stored in the storage media.
  7. Restore equipment
    • Equipment is cleaned after use as per manufacturers’ instruction.
    • Equipment and materials are stored in accordance with workplace procedures


This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to employ lighting techniques to a wide range of subjects in different situations.

  1. Plan lighting requirements
    • Required lighting characteristics for the subject and purpose of image are correctly identified.
    • Lighting equipment for the purpose are selected appropriately
  2. Prepare specific work environment
    • Work Environment that meets requirements for the production of work is selected appropriately
    • Relevant camera systems and accessories for the work are selected and used.
    • Lighting system is correctly assembled in accordance with work requirements
    • Required safety aspects of the lighting set up and cabling are implemented.
  3. Light the subject
    • Lighting techniques are tested to suit the purpose of work
    • Qualities of light is adjusted, modified and calibrated to suit subject.
    • Exposure is calculated to determine subject consistency with the purpose of photography
  4. Capture image
    • Images are captured using film or digital
    • Captured images based on work requirements are reviewed and appropriate actions are taken, if necessary.
  5. Restore work environment and equipment
    • Work environment is restored after use as per established practice
    • Equipment is cleaned and maintained in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions
    • Equipment and materials are stored safely as per workplace procedures.


This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to use techniques for image processing and focuses on technical aspects including chemical and electronic processes. This unit refers to the use of specific equipment and techniques for making photo images.

  1. Prepare work environment for post capture processing
    • Work environment is selected in order to meet requirements for specific processing tasks
    • Work environment is cleaned and maintained to remain safe during the production of work
    • Equipment and materials / software for processing work are correctly set up
    • Codes of practices are followed based on safety requirements of the workplace
  2. Process images by analog or digital means
    • Digital files are downloaded in accordance with manufacturers’ instructions
    • Negatives or files are organized into appropriate folders as per established practice
    • Work progress is accurately documented in accordance with workplace procedures
  3. Test techniques to produce proof sheet(s)
    • Files or negatives are appropriately selected according to established practice
    • Appropriate techniques are applied to produce analog or digital proof sheets
  4. Test techniques to make work-print(s) and screen images
    • Images from the proof sheets are selected that match the concept / required outcome
    • Enhancement and printing techniques are utilized to output work-print(s) or display and save on screen
  5. Store photo images
    • Storage media are identified and selected based on work requirements
    • Stored photo images are catalogued, organized and backed up as per established practice
  6. Restore work environment and equipment
    • Work area is safely dismantled after use based on standard operating procedures
    • Waste is minimized and disposed off in accordance with safety and health requirements
    • Equipment is cleaned and maintained in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions
    • Equipment is stored in accordance with workplace procedures


This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to prepare finished images / prints based on specifications.

  1. Prepare photo images and material for final packaging
    • Photo images and materials are prepared according to customers’ requirements and specifications
    • Editing software is used to convert images for print and other requirements
  2. Select appropriate printing equipment
    • Printing equipment is selected in accordance with work requirements
    • Printing equipment is maintained as per manufacturer’s instruction.
  3. Apply finishing touches
    • Finished products are assessed for imperfections and applied finishing touches as per established practice.
    • Imperfections are corrected using retouching materials or appropriate editing software
  4. Package finished products
    • Finished products are properly labeled and packaged as per established practice
    • Finished products are delivered to customers on time



This unit of competency deals with the knowledge, skills and attitude required to access, increase and update industry knowledge. It includes seek information on the industry and update industry knowledge

  1. Seek information on the industry
    • Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and accessed
    • Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line with job requirements
    • Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated
    • Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work activities
  2. Update industry knowledge
    • Informal and/or formal research is used to update general knowledge of the industry
    • Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as appropriate and incorporated into day-today working activities


This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes and values needed to perform computer operations which includes inputting, accessing, producing and transferring data using the appropriate hardware and software

  1. Plan and prepare for task to be undertaken
    • Requirements of task are determined as per standard operating procedures
    • Appropriate hardware and software is selected according to task assigned and required outcome
    • Task is planned to ensure OH & S guidelines and procedures are followed
  2. Input data into computer
    • Data are entered into the computer using appropriate program/application in accordance with company procedures
    • Accuracy of information is checked and information is saved in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Inputted data are stored in storage media according to requirements
    • Work is performed within ergonomic guidelines
  3. Access information using computer
    • Correct program/application is selected based on job requirements
    • Program/application containing the information required is accessed according to company procedures
    • Desktop icons are correctly selected, opened and closed for navigation purposes
    • Keyboard techniques are carried out in line with OH & S requirements for safe use of keyboards
  4. Produce/output data using computer system
    • Entered data are processed using appropriate software commands
    • Data are printed out as required using computer hardware/peripheral devices in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Files and data are transferred between compatible systems using computer software, hardware/ peripheral devices in accordance with standard operating procedures
  5. Maintain computer equipment and systems
    • Systems for cleaning, minor maintenance and replacement of consumables are implemented
    • Procedures for ensuring security of data, including regular back-ups and virus checks are implemented in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Basic file maintenance procedures are implemented in line with the standard operating procedures


This unit of competency deals with the knowledge, skills and attitudes in providing effective customer service. It includes greeting customer, identifying customer needs, delivering service to customer, handling queries through telephone, fax machine, internet and email and handling complaints, evaluation and recommendation.

  1. Greet customer
    • Guests are greeted in line with enterprise procedure
    • Verbal and non-verbal communications are appropriate to the given situation
    • Non verbal communication of customer is observed responding to customer
    • Sensitivity to cultural and social differences is demonstrated
  2. Identify customer needs
    • Appropriate interpersonal skills are used to ensure that customer needs are accurately identified
    • Customer needs are assessed for urgency so that priority for service delivery can be identified
    • Customers are provided with information
    • Personal limitation in addressing customer needs is identified and where appropriate, assistance is sought from supervisor
  3. Deliver service to customer
    • Customer needs are promptly attended to in line with enterprise procedure
    • Appropriate rapport is maintained with customer to enable high quality service delivery
    • Opportunity to enhance the quality of service and products are taken wherever possible
  4. Handle queries through telephone, fax machine, internet and email
    • Use telephone, computer, fax machine, internet efficiently to determine customer requirements
    • Queries/ information are recorded in line with enterprise procedure
    • Queries are acted upon promptly and correctly in line with enterprise procedure
  5. Handle complaints, evaluation and recommendations
    • Guests are greeted with a smile and eye-to-eye contact
    • Responsibility for resolving the complaint is taken within limit of responsibility
    • Nature and details of complaint are established and agreed with the customer
    • Appropriate action is taken to resolve the complaint to the customers satisfaction wherever possible


UNIT CODE : 500311105

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to gather, interpret and convey information in response to workplace requirements.

  1. Obtain and convey workplace information
    • Specific and relevant information is accessed from appropriate sources
    • Effective questioning, active listening and speaking skills are used together and convey information
    • Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas
    • Appropriate non- verbal communication is used
    • Appropriate lines of communication with supervisors and colleagues are identified and followed
    • Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of information are used
    • Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely
  2. Participate in workplace meetings and discussions
    • Team meetings are at ended on time
    • Own opinions are clear expressed and those of others are listened to without interruption
    • Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and established protocols
    • Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
    • Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and matters concerning working conditions of employment are asked and responded to.
    • Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
  3. Complete relevant work related documents
    • Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are completed accurately and legibly
    • Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and documents
    • Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
    • Errors in recording information on forms/documents are identified and properly acted upon
    • Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according to organizational guidelines

UNIT CODE : 500311106

This unit covers the skills, knowledge and attitudes to identify role and responsibility as a member of a team.

  1. Describe team role and scope
    • The role and objective of the team is identified from available sources of information
    • Team parameters, reporting relationships and responsibilities are identified from team discussions and appropriate external sources.
  2. Identify own role and responsibility within team
    • Individual role and responsibilities within the team environment are identified.
    • Roles and responsibility of other team members are identified and recognized.
    • Reporting relationships within team and external to team are identified.
  3. Work as a team member
    • Effective and appropriate forms of communications used and interactions undertaken with team members who contribute to known team activities and objectives.
    • Effective and appropriate contributions made to complement team activities and objectives, based on individual skills and competencies and workplace context.
    • Observed protocols in reporting using standard operating procedures.
    • Contribute to the development of team work plans based on an understanding of team’s role and objectives and individual competencies of the members.

UNIT CODE : 500311107

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in promoting career growth and advancement.

  1. Integrate personal objectives with organizational goals
    • Personal growth and work plans are pursued towards improving the qualifications set for the profession
    • Intra- and interpersonal relationships is are maintained in the course of managing oneself based on performance evaluation
    • Commitment to the organization and its goal is demonstrated in the performance of duties
  2. Set and meet work priorities
    • Competing demands are prioritized to achieve personal, team and organizational goals and objectives.
    • Resources are utilized efficiently and effectively to manage work priorities and commitments
    • Practices along economic use and maintenance of equipment and facilities are followed as per established procedures
  3. Maintain professional growth and development
    • Trainings and career opportunities are identified and availed of based on job requirements
    • Recognitions are sought/received and demonstrated as proof of career advancement
    • Licenses and/or certifications relevant to job and career are obtained and renewed

UNIT CODE : 500311108

This unit covers the outcomes required to comply with regulatory and organizational requirements for occupational health and safety.

  1. Identify hazards and risks
    • Safety regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are clarified and explained based on organization procedures
    • Hazards/risks in the workplace and their corresponding indicators are identified to minimize or eliminate risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization procedures
    • Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire and other emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization procedures
  2. Evaluate hazards and risks
    • Terms of maximum tolerable limits which when exceeded will result in harm or damage are identified based on threshold limit values (TLV)
    • Effects of the hazards are determined
    • OHS issues and/or concerns and identified safety hazards are reported to designated personnel in accordance with workplace requirements and relevant workplace OHS legislation
  3. Control hazards and risks
    • Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) procedures for controlling hazards/risks in workplace are consistently
    • Procedures for dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies are followed in accordance with organization OHS policies
    • Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance with organization OHS procedures and practices
    • Appropriate assistance is provided in the event of a workplace emergency in accordance with established organization protocol
  4. Maintain OHS awareness
    • Emergency-related drills and trainings are participated in as per established organization guidelines and procedures
    • OHS personal records are completed and updated in accordance with workplace requirements


  • APERTURE – A circle-shaped opening in a lens (a hole, really) through which light passes to strike the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. The size of the aperture is expressed as an ‘-number, like ‘/8 or ‘/11.
  • ARTIFICIAL LIGHT – Illumination that comes from a man-made source, such as electronic flash.
  • AUTOEXPOSURE – Shutter speed and aperture are set automatically by the camera based on its interpretation of the camera’s exposure meter readings. Some high-end cameras employ highly-sophisticated, computerized autoexposure systems that seem to be almost foolproof, whereas most consumer cameras’ autoexposure systems work best in average lighting situations.
  • AUTOFOCUS – Ability of a lens to focus automatically on an object within its focusing sensors.
  • BALANCE – Compositional harmony of a scene based on the placement of elements of different sizes, shapes and colors.
  • BUILT-IN LIGHT METER – A reflective exposure meter that is a built-in component of a camera.
  • CABLE RELEASE – A flexible cable with a push-button on one end that, when depressed, forces a wire through the cable to depress a camera’s shutter release button. The cable release attaches to the camera directly over the shutter release button. A cable release has minimal effect on camera movement, and is therefore especially handy for the photographer who wishes to avoid blur in time exposures.
  • CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE – Also known as a CCD, it is the light-sensitive device in many digital cameras (and scanners) that captures the image – i.e converts light entering the camera into digital data that can be recorded as a picture.
  • CLOSE-UP – Generally, a picture of a subject that fills the frame, usually with the subject looking particularly close to the camera.
  • COLOR BALANCE – (1) The manner in which color film reproduces a scene’s colors under different types of lighting (daylight or tungsten). (2) The adjustment of colors in making color prints.
  • COMPOSITION – The arrangement of the elements (subject and other objects) in a scene or photograph.
  • CONTRAST – (1) the range of difference between highlights and shadow areas in an image. Many factors affect an image’s contrast, including the degree of development and the contrast grade of the paper on which an image is printed. (2) The range of brightness in a scene or in the light striking a subject. (Sometimes contrast is also referred to as
  • DENSITY – The relative opacity (blackness) of an area of a negative, a transparency or a print. The greater the density, the less light can be transmitted through it. (Sometimes density is also referred to as “Contrast.”)
  • DEPTH OF FIELD – The range of distance in a scene that appears to be in focus and will be reproduced as being acceptably sharp in an image. Depth of field is controlled by the lens aperture, and extends for a distance in front of and behind the point on which the lens is focused.
  • DEPTH OF FOCUS – A zone of focus in the camera. If an image is focused on a ground glass screen in a camera, depth of focus makes it possible to move the screen slightly backward or forward and still have the image in acceptable focus.
  • DIFFUSED LIGHT or DIFFUSE LIGHTING – Light that is scattered and spread out as opposed to specular light. Diffused light is softer than direct light, with shadows that are less sharply-defined (lower contrast).
  • DIGITAL CAMERA – A camera that takes pictures without film, but instead records the image on an image sensor chip in a format that is readable by a computer.
  • DIGITAL ZOOM – Zoom effect in some digital cameras that is not true (optical) zoom, but is instead an enlargement of the information from the center of the CCD or CMOS (image sensor).
  • ELECTRONIC FLASH – Artificial light source produced by an electrical discharge traveling between two electrodes through a gas-filled tube. The light from electronic flash is approximately the same color as daylight.
  • ELEMENT – A single lens that is a component of a compound lens.
  • EXPOSURE – (1) Exposure occurs when light is permitted to strike film – i.e. when the film
    is exposed to light. (2) Exposure is the total amount of light striking the film or other photographic material. (3) Also refers to a combination of shutter speed and aperture used in exposing the film in a camera, as in “My light meter shows an exposure of 1/125 second at ƒ/11.” A particular aperture and shutter speed combinations are often referred to as “exposure settings.” “Proper exposure” refers to exposure that produces an image satisfactory to the photographer.
  • EXPOSURE METER – An instrument containing a light-sensitive cell used to measure the amount of light reflected from or falling on a subject. The measurement is usually expressed in shutter speed and aperture combinations that will render an acceptable exposure. (Also known as a light meter.)
  • EXPOSURE SETTING – The aperture and shutter speed combination used to expose the film in a camera.
  • f-NUMBER – (ƒ-number) A number that expresses a lens’ light-transmitting ability – i.e. the size of the lens opening. Usually found on the barrel of a lens, f-numbers indicate the size of the aperture in relation to the focal length of the lens. A smaller number indicates a larger lens diameter. ƒ/1.4 signifies  that the focal length of the lens is 1.4 times as great as the diameter. All lenses set at the same f-number transmit the same amount of light.
  • ƒ-stop – (f-stop) A lens aperture setting calibrated to an f-number.
  • FIELD CAMERA – A type of camera known as the”field” or “baseboard” camera is essentially a portable view camera, because it functions in much the same way and with similar controls and features.
  • FILTER – Tinted glass, gelatin or plastic discs, squares or rectangles that modify the light passing through them. Filters are used in photography to change the appearance of a scene by emphasizing, eliminating or changing color or density, generally so that the scene can be recorded with a more natural look, on a particular film.
  • FISHEYE – Describes an extreme wide-angle lens that has an angle of view exceeding 100° – sometimes more than 180° – and that renders a scene as highly distorted.
  • FIXED FOCAL LENGTH – Descriptive of the lens in a camera that has one lens only that cannot be interchanged for another lens and that cannot be zoomed.
  • FLASH – (1) A brief, sudden burst of bright light from a flashbulb or an electronic flash unit; (2) An artificial light source that provides brief, bright illumination of a subject in order to properly expose photographic film; (3) Often used in reference to the actual unit that produces the flash, as in “My flash is built into my camera.”
  • FLASH METER – Exposure meter designed to measure the light from electronic flash.
  • FOCAL LENGTH – Focal length is the distance between the focal point of a lens and the film plane when the lens is focused at infinity. It is used to designate the relative size and angle of view of a lens, expressed in millimeters (mm). A particular lens’ focal length can generally be found engraved or printed on the front of the lens.
  • FOCUS – (1) A point at which rays of light meet after being refracted or reflected. (2) Focal point of a lens. (3) The clear and sharply-defined condition of an image, as in “This image is in focus,” meaning it is sharp and well-defined. (4) Adjustment of the distance setting on a lens to obtain a sharply-defined image.
  • GELATIN – A nearly transparent substance, obtained by boiling animal tissue in water, used as (1) the medium for suspending light-sensitive silver halide crystals on photographic film, and (2) in the manufacture of gelatin filters.
  • GOBO – A light-blocking device that falls under the general category of “Grip equipment.” Generally used in a studio to prevent illumination from a studio light striking a portion of a scene. A “gobo” can be a simple piece of opaque cardboard or a sophisticated material in a
  • LATITUDE – Commonly “Exposure latitude” – The range of brightness, including shadow detail, that a film can record in a single image before the highlights wash out or the shadows become muddy. Fast films generally have greater exposure latitude than slow films. Knowing a film’s latitude lets you know how much exposure can be varied and still produce an acceptable image.
  • LENS – A true “lens” is a single piece of glass (or other transparent substance) having one or more curved surfaces used in changing the convergence of light rays. What we commonly call a photographic lens is more accurately and technically called an “objective,” an optical device containing a combination of lenses that receive light rays from an object and form an image on the focal plane. However, dictionaries have come to accept the usage of the term “lens” to mean the entire photographic objective itself. A photographic lens will always be called a lens, even though it is not a lens, but has a lot of lenses in it. A camera lens collects and focuses rays of light to form an image on film.
  • LENS SPEED – The widest aperture at which a lens can be set. A lens with a fast speed has a very wide maximum aperture, such as ƒ/1.4, for example, and transmits more light than a lens with a slow lens speed, such as ƒ/8.
  • LIGHT METER – An instrument used to measure the amount of light reflected from or falling on a subject. The measurement is usually expressed in shutter speed and aperture combinations that will render an acceptable exposure. (Also known as an “Exposure meter.”)
  • LOCATION – A photography site that is outside of the studio. The often-heard term “shooting on location” refers to taking pictures at such a site.
  • MEMORY CARD – A removable device for storing images taken by a digital camera.
  • OBJECTIVE – An objective (or object lens, object glass, objective lens or photographic objective) is an optical system or device containing a combination of lenses that receive light rays from an object and form an image on the focal plane. A photographic lens is an objective.
  • OVER-EXPOSE – Expose a photographic emulsion to more than light than is necessary for proper exposure.
  • PANNING – Technique that involves taking a picture while moving the camera at a relatively slow shutter speed. It is almost always used when tracking a moving object, such as a race car, as it travels across the film plane. When properly carried out, the object is rendered relatively sharply while its surroundings are blurred.
  • PERSPECTIVE – Technique of depicting volumes and spacial relationships (a scene in three-dimensions) on a flat surface (an image having two dimensions).
  • PHOTOGRAPHERS – are frequently categorized based on the subjects they photograph. There are photographers of the subjects typical of paintings (landscape, still life, portrait, etc.) as well as documentary photographers, fashion photographers, and commercial photographers, etc. Some photographers specialize in a certain type of image, while others are generalists. The distinction between artistic photography and photojournalism or other types of photography and the associated techniques does not remove this personal aspect from the work of the great photographers.
  • PHOTOGRAPHY – is both an artistic and technical job with which one can present his or her technical proficiency as well as beautifully composed images. A photographer uses his camera much the way an artist uses his brush, as a tool to capture his unique perspective of the world around him.
  • PORTRAIT – A picture of a person or persons that captures their likeness, especially their face. (See Portrait photography.)
  • PORTFOLIO – A collection of selected photographs intended to illustrate a photographer’s style and range of photography, or in the case of a model’s portfolio, a collection of photographs and/or tearsheets that demonstrate his or her modeling abilities and experience.
  • POSE – The position assumed by a subject in relation to the camera, including the angling and placement of head, hands, feet, etc.
  • PRINT – A photographic image printed on paper, generally a positive image made from a negative. (Also refers to a photograph of a model that appears in print – in a newspaper or magazine, for example.)
  • RED EYE – An image in which a subject’s irises are red instead of black. The red eye effect is caused by light from a flash traveling through the iris and illuminating the retina at the interior back of the eye–– which is red in color due to its blood vessels –– and the camera capturing that redness on film.
  • TIFF – Tagged Image File Format – A standard digital image format for bitmapped graphics in an uncompressed state. The image files are much larger than compressed files, but can be opened in all image-processing programs.
  • TIME EXPOSURE – An exposure with a duration of several seconds or longer, the timing of which is measured by the photographer.
  • TRIPOD – A pole on a base of three legs to which a camera can be attached, providing support that eliminates or reduces camera movement, useful for sharp images when using slow shutter speeds or to show blur from a moving subject. The height of the pole and of the individual legs can usually be adjusted. Various models have different characteristics.
  • VIEWFINDER – A viewing device on a camera used by the photographer to see the field of view taken in by the camera’s lens and the portion of the view that will be recorded on film. (Also known as “Finder” or “Projected frame.”)
  • ZOOM – The action of varying the focal length of a zoom lens to enlarge (zoom in) or reduce (zoom out) the image.
  • ZOOM LENS – A lens in which focal length is variable. Elements inside a zoom lens shift their positions, enabling the lens to change its focal length – in effect, providing one lens that has many focal lengths. (Also called a “Variable focus lens.”)