SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II – TESDA COURSE MODULE

TESDA TRAINING REGULATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II

The TESDA Course in Semiconductor Front-of-Line (FOL) Operations NC II consists of competencies that must be possessed to enable a person to work in a semiconductor company engaged in production of semiconductor front-of-line products. This qualification involves such competencies to set up the FOL operations workplace, analyze, carry-out and monitor FOL operations and check quality compliance of FOL operations for semiconductor production line.

This Qualification is packaged from the competency map of the Electrical & Electronics Industry (manufacturing sector)

A student who has achieved this TESDA Course in SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II is competent to be:

  • Semiconductor Front-of-Line Operator

TRAINEE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

The trainees who wish to enter the course should possess the following requirements:

  • Must have completed at least 10 yrs. basic education or an alternative learning systems (ALS) certificate of achievement with grade 10 equivalent holder
  • Can communicate orally & in writing
  • Can perform basic mathematical computations

SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II COURSE

Course Title: SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS
Level: NC II
Nominal Training Duration :

(Basic Competency) 16 Hours
(Common Competency) 16 Hours
(Core Competency) 48 Hours

Total Duration: 80 Hours

This course is designed to develop & enhance the knowledge, skills, & attitudes of a Semiconductor FOL Operator, in accordance with industry standards. It covers the basic & common competencies in addition to the core competencies such as preparing workplace, analyzing, carrying-out and monitoring front-of-line machine/equipment operations and checking quality compliance for semiconductor production line.

COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II

This units of competency comprising this qualification include Basic, Common, and Core Competencies.

To obtain this TESDA course in SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II, all units prescribed for this qualification must be achieved.

These units of competency comprising this qualification include the following:

UNIT CODE CORE COMPETENCIES (46 Hours)
ELC313310 Setup front-of-line (FOL) operations workplace for semiconductor production line
ELC313311 Analyze, carry-out and monitor front-of-line (FOL) operations for semiconductor production line
ELC313312 Check quality compliance of front-of-line (FOL) operations for semiconductor production line
UNIT CODE COMMON COMPETENCIES (16 Hours)
ELC311205 Use Hand Tools
ELC311204 Apply Quality Standards
ELC311203 Perform Computer Operations
UNIT CODE BASIC COMPETENCIES (16 Hours)
500311105 Participate in workplace communication
500311106 Work in a team environment
500311107 Practice career professionalism
500311108 Practice occupational health and safety procedures

This section gives the details and contents of the units of competency required in SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II. These units of competency are categorized into basic, common and core competencies.

CORE COMPETENCIES

This section gives the details of the contents of the core units of competency required in SEMICONDUCTOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS NC II.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: SET UP FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS WORKPLACE FOR SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTION LINE
UNIT CODE : ELC313310

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed in setting up the front-of-line (FOL) operation workplace for semiconductor production line. This includes gathering production tools and materials, setting up semiconductor FOL machine parameters and peripherals, accomplishing production line checklist and performing daily maintenance activity.

  1. Gather tools and materials for semiconductor FOL process
    • Process requirements are determined according to production specifications
    • Appropriate hand tools, PPE and materials are selected and completed according to process requirements and required time
    • Quantity and quality of materials are checked in accordance to production specifications
    • Completeness and accuracy of documents are checked in accordance to production specifications
  2. Set-up semiconductor FOL machine parameters and peripherals
    • Walk-around check or visual inspection of FOL machine is done prior to production operations
    • Semiconductor FOL machine parameters are set correctly according to production specifications
    • Semiconductor FOL machine parameters and peripherals are checked according to production specifications
    • Any non-conformance to specifications are reported to appropriate personnel
  3. Accomplish semiconductor production line checklist
    • All check items are performed according to specifications
    • Semiconductor production line checklist are correctly filled-out according to specifications
    • Semiconductor production line checklist is completed based on required time
    • Work turnover procedure is performed for next work shift
  4. Perform daily preventive maintenance (PM)
    • Semiconductor machine basic physical condition are checked according to specifications
    • If necessary, daily PM is performed based on required time
    • Any non-conformance to specifications are reported to appropriate personnel
    • Housekeeping procedures are observed in accordance with 5S discipline and established procedures

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: ANALYZE, CARRY-OUT AND MONITOR FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTION LINE
UNIT CODE : ELC313311

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed in performing any process, either automated or manual, in front-offline (FOL) operation for semiconductor production line. This includes initializing/operating semiconductor FOL equipment, running sample units and loading production units. It also includes performing FOL manual processes, if applicable.

  1. Initialize/Operate semiconductor FOL machine/equipment
    • Safety requirements are complied with using the operation manual
    • Appropriate PPE and ESD apparels are used in the performance of the job
    • Appropriate tools and materials are used according to process requirements
    • Semiconductors FOL machine settings are checked according to product specifications
    • Semiconductor FOL machine is initialized/operated in accordance to assigned line by supervisor
    • Semiconductor FOL machine’s troubles/problems are immediately recorded and reported to the appropriate personnel
  2. Run semiconductors FOL sample units
    • Semiconductors FOL sample output is checked in accordance to product criteria
    • Semiconductors FOL sample unit is loaded to the equipment in accordance to product orientation and specifications
    • If applicable, manual semiconductor FOL process is performed in accordance with work instructions and company procedures
    • Out of control action plan (OCAP) is followed in case of any nonconformance or deviation to the process
    • Semiconductors FOL production forms are accomplished based on production procedures
  3. Load semiconductors FOL production units
    • Production output is checked in accordance to product criteria
    • Production units are loaded to the equipment in accordance to product orientation and specifications
    • If applicable, manual semiconductor FOL process is performed in accordance with work instructions and company procedures
    • Out of control action plan (OCAP) is followed in case of any nonconformance or deviation to the process
    • Semiconductors FOL production forms are accomplished based on production procedures

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: CHECK QUALITY COMPLIANCE OF FRONT-OF-LINE (FOL) OPERATIONS FOR SEMICONDUCTOR PRODUCTION LINE
UNIT CODE : ELC313312

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed in performing front-of-line (FOL) operation for semiconductor production line. This includes monitoring front-end machine/equipment operation, completing lot traceability and performing visual machine inspection.

  1. Monitor semiconductor FOL operation
    • Output and yield are checked in accordance with production requirements
    • Out of control action plan (OCAP) is followed in case of any non-conformance or deviation to the process
    • Semiconductor FOL production forms are accomplished in accordance with process requirements
  2. Perform visual inspection
    • Finished products are checked/ inspected using appropriate instruments/tools
    • Physical defects are identified based on product specifications
    • Conforming and nonconforming products are identified and segregated in accordance with production procedures
    • Housekeeping procedures are observed in accordance with 5S discipline and established procedures
  3. Complete semiconductor FOL lot traceability
    • Lot traceability are transacted in accordance with production procedures
    • Conforming and nonconforming products are identified and segregated in accordance with production procedures
    • Disposition of lots is determined in accordance with product criteria

COMMON COMPETENCIES

UNIT TITLE : USE HAND TOOLS
UNIT CODE : ELC311205

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes on the safe use, handling and maintenance of tools.

  1. Plan and prepare for tasks to be undertaken
    • Tasks to be undertaken are properly identified
    • Appropriate hand tools are identified and selected according to the task requirements
  2. Prepare hand tools
    • Appropriate hand tools are checked for proper operation and safety
    • Unsafe or faulty tools are identified and marked for repair according to standard company procedure
  3. Use appropriate hand tools and test equipment
    • Tools are used according to tasks undertaken
    • All safety procedures in using tools are observed at all times and appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) are used
    • Malfunctions, unplanned or unusual events are reported to the supervisor
  4. Maintain hand tools
    • Tools are not dropped to avoid damage
    • Routine maintenance of tools undertaken according to standard operational procedures, principles and techniques
    • Tools are stored safely in appropriate locations in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications or standard operating procedures.

UNIT TITLE : APPLY QUALITY STANDARDS
UNIT CODE : ELC311204

This unit covers the knowledge, skills, (and) attitudes and values needed to apply quality standards in the workplace.

The unit also includes the application of relevant safety procedures and regulations, organization procedures and customer requirements

  1. Assess quality of received materials or components
    • Work instructions are obtained and work is carried out in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Received materials or component parts are checked against workplace standards and specifications
    • Faulty material or components related to work are identified and isolated
    • Faults and any identified causes are recorded and/or reported to the supervisor concerned in accordance with workplace procedures
    • Faulty materials or components are replaced in accordance with workplace procedures
  2. Assess own work
    • Documentation relative to quality within the company is identified and used
    • Completed work is checked against workplace standards relevant to the task undertaken
    • Faulty pieces are identified and isolated
    • Information on the quality and other indicators of production performance is recorded in accordance with workplace procedures
    • In cases of deviations from specified quality standards, causes are documented and reported in accordance with the workplace’ standards operating procedures
  3. Engage in quality improvement
    • Process improvement procedures are participated in relation to workplace assignment
    • Work is carried out in accordance with process improvement procedures
    • Performance of operation or quality of product or service to ensure customer satisfaction is monitored

UNIT TITLE : PERFORM COMPUTER OPERATIONS
UNIT CODE : ELC311203

This unit covers the knowledge, skills, (and) attitudes and values needed to perform computer operations which include inputting, accessing, producing and transferring data using the appropriate hardware and software

  1. Plan and prepare for task to be undertaken
    • Requirements of task are determined
    • Appropriate hardware and software are selected according to task assigned and required outcome
    • Task is planned to ensure OH&S guidelines and procedures are followed
  2. Input data into computer
    • Data are entered into the computer using appropriate program/application in accordance with company procedures
    • Accuracy of information is checked and information is saved in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Inputted data are stored in storage media according to requirements
    • Work is performed within ergonomic guidelines
  3. Access information using computer
    • Correct program/application is selected based on job requirements
    • Program/application containing the information required is accessed according to company procedures
    • Desktop icons are correctly selected, opened and closed for navigation purposes
    • Keyboard techniques are carried out in line with OH&S requirements for safe use of keyboards
  4. Produce/output data using computer system
    • Entered data are processed using appropriate software commands
    • Data printed out as required using computer hardware/peripheral devices in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Files, data are transferred between compatible systems using computer software, hardware/peripheral devices in accordance with standard operating procedures
  5. Maintain computer equipment and systems
    • Systems for cleaning, minor maintenance and replacement of consumables are implemented
    • Procedures for ensuring security of data, including regular back-ups and virus checks are implemented in accordance with standard operating procedures
    • Basic file maintenance procedures are implemented in line with the standard

UNIT TITLE : TERMINATE AND CONNECT ELECTRICAL WIRING AND ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT
UNIT CODE : ELC311206

This unit covers the knowledge, skills, (and) attitudes and values needed to terminate and connect electrical wiring and electronic circuits

  1. Plan and prepare for termination/connection of electrical wiring/electronic s circuits
    • Materials are checked according to specifications and tasks
    • Appropriate tools and equipment are selected according to tasks requirements
    • Task is planned to ensure OH & S guidelines and procedures are followed
    • Electrical wiring/electronic circuits are correctly prepared for connecting/termination in accordance with instructions and work site procedures
  2. Terminate/connect electrical wiring/electronic circuits
    • Safety procedures in using tools are observed at all times and appropriate personal protective equipment are used
    • Work is undertaken safely in accordance with the workplace and standard procedures
    • Appropriate range of methods in termination/connection are used according to specifications, manufacturer’s requirements and safety
    • Correct sequence of operation is followed
    • Accessories used are adjusted, if necessary
    • Confirmed termination/connection is undertaken successfully in accordance with job
      specification
  3. Test termination/connections of electrical wiring/electronics circuits
    • Testing of all completed termination/ connections of electric wiring/electronic circuits is conducted for compliance with specifications and regulations using appropriate procedures and equipment
    • Wiring and circuits are checked using specified testing procedures
    • Unplanned events or conditions are responded to in accordance with established procedures

BASIC COMPETENCIES

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PARTICIPATE IN WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION
UNIT CODE : 500311105

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to gather, interpret and convey information in response to workplace requirements.

  1. Obtain and convey workplace information
    • Specific and relevant information is accessed from appropriate sources
    • Effective questioning, active listening and speaking skills are used together and convey information
    • Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas
    • Appropriate non- verbal communication is used
    • Appropriate lines of communication with supervisors and colleagues are identified and followed
    • Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of information are used
    • Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely
  2. Participate in workplace meetings and discussions
    • Team meetings are at ended on time
    • Own opinions are clear expressed and those of others are listened to without interruption
    • Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and established protocols
    • Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
    • Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and matters concerning working conditions of employment are asked and responded to.
    • Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
  3. Complete relevant work related documents
    • Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are completed accurately and legibly
    • Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and documents
    • Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
    • Errors in recording information on forms/documents are identified and properly acted upon
    • Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according to organizational guidelines

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : WORK IN TEAM ENVIRONMENT
UNIT CODE : 500311106

This unit covers the skills, knowledge and attitudes to identify role and responsibility as a member of a team.

  1. Describe team role and scope
    • The role and objective of the team is identified from available sources of information
    • Team parameters, reporting relationships and responsibilities are identified from team discussions and appropriate external sources.
  2. Identify own role and responsibility within team
    • Individual role and responsibilities within the team environment are identified.
    • Roles and responsibility of other team members are identified and recognized.
    • Reporting relationships within team and external to team are identified.
  3. Work as a team member
    • Effective and appropriate forms of communications used and interactions undertaken with team members who contribute to known team activities and objectives.
    • Effective and appropriate contributions made to complement team activities and objectives, based on individual skills and competencies and workplace context.
    • Observed protocols in reporting using standard operating procedures.
    • Contribute to the development of team work plans based on an understanding of team’s role and objectives and individual competencies of the members.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRACTICE CAREER PROFESSIONALISM
UNIT CODE : 500311107

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in promoting career growth and advancement.

  1. Integrate personal objectives with organizational goals
    • Personal growth and work plans are pursued towards improving the qualifications set for the profession
    • Intra- and interpersonal relationships is are maintained in the course of managing oneself based on performance evaluation
    • Commitment to the organization and its goal is demonstrated in the performance of duties
  2. Set and meet work priorities
    • Competing demands are prioritized to achieve personal, team and organizational goals and objectives.
    • Resources are utilized efficiently and effectively to manage work priorities and commitments
    • Practices along economic use and maintenance of equipment and facilities are followed as per established procedures
  3. Maintain professional growth and development
    • Trainings and career opportunities are identified and availed of based on job requirements
    • Recognitions are sought/received and demonstrated as proof of career advancement
    • Licenses and/or certifications relevant to job and career are obtained and renewed

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRACTICE  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
UNIT CODE : 500311108

This unit covers the outcomes required to comply with regulatory and organizational requirements for occupational health and safety.

  1. Identify hazards and risks
    • Safety regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are clarified and explained based on organization procedures
    • Hazards/risks in the workplace and their corresponding indicators are identified to minimize or eliminate risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization procedures
    • Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire and other emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization procedures
  2. Evaluate hazards and risks
    • Terms of maximum tolerable limits which when exceeded will result in harm or damage are identified based on threshold limit values (TLV)
    • Effects of the hazards are determined
    • OHS issues and/or concerns and identified safety hazards are reported to designated personnel in accordance with workplace requirements and relevant workplace OHS legislation
  3. Control hazards and risks
    • Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) procedures for controlling hazards/risks in workplace are consistently
      followed
    • Procedures for dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies are followed in accordance with organization OHS policies
    • Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance with organization OHS procedures and practices
    • Appropriate assistance is provided in the event of a workplace emergency in accordance with established organization protocol
  4. Maintain OHS awareness
    • Emergency-related drills and trainings are participated in as per established organization guidelines and procedures
    • OHS personal records are completed and updated in accordance with workplace requirements

DEFINITION OF TERMS

GENERAL

  • Certification – is the process of verifying and validating the competencies of a person through assessment
  • Certificate of Competency (COC) – is a certification issued to individuals who pass the assessment for a single unit or cluster of units of competency
  • Common Competencies – are the skills and knowledge needed by all people working in a particular industry
  • Competency – is the possession and application of knowledge, skills and attitudes to perform work activities to the standard expected in the workplace
  • Competency Assessment – is the process of collecting evidence and making judgments on whether competency has been achieved
  • Competency Standard (CS) – is the industry-determined specification of competencies required for effective work performance
  • Context of Assessment – refers to the place where assessment is to be conducted or carried out
  • Core Competencies – are the specific skills and knowledge needed in a particular area of work – industry sector/occupation/job role
  • Critical aspects of competency – refers to the evidence that is essential for successful performance of the unit of competency
  • Elective Competencies – are the additional skills and knowledge required by the individual or enterprise for work
  • Elements – are the building blocks of a unit of competency. They describe in outcome terms the functions that a person performs in the workplace.
  • Evidence Guide – is a component of the unit of competency that defines or identifies the evidences required to determine the competence of the individual. It provides information on critical aspects of competency, underpinning knowledge, underpinning skills, resource implications, assessment method and context of assessment
  • Level – refers to the category of skills and knowledge required to do a job
  • Method of Assessment – refers to the ways of collecting evidence and when, evidence should be collected
  • National Certificate (NC) – is a certification issued to individuals who achieve all the required units of competency for a national qualification defined under the Training Regulations. NCs are aligned to specific levels within the PTQF
  • Performance Criteria – are evaluative statements that specify what is to be assessed and the required level of performance
  • Qualification – is a cluster of units of competencies that meets job roles and is significant in the workplace. It is also a certification awarded to a person on successful completion of a course in recognition of having demonstrated competencies in an industry sector
  • Range of Variables – describes the circumstances or context in which the work is to be performed
  • Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) – is the acknowledgement of an individual’s skills, knowledge and attitudes gained from life and work experiences outside registered training programs
  • Resource Implication – refer to the resources needed for the successful performance of the work activity described in the unit of competency. It includes work environment and conditions, materials, tools and equipment
  • Basic Competencies – are the skills and knowledge that everyone needs for work
  • Training Regulations (TR) – refers to the document promulgated and issued by TESDA consisting of competency standards, national qualifications and training guidelines for specific sectors/occupations. The TR serves as basis for establishment of qualification and certification under the PTQF. It also serves as guide for development of competency-based curricula and instructional materials including registration of TVET programs offered by TVET providers
  • Underpinning Knowledge – refers to the competency that involves in applying knowledge to perform work activities. It includes specific knowledge that is essential to the performance of the competency
  • Underpinning Skills – refers to the list of the skills needed to achieve the elements and performance criteria in the unit of competency. It includes generic and industry specific skills
  • Unit of Competency – is a component of the competency standards stating a specific key function or role in a particular job or occupation; it is the smallest component of achievement that can be assessed and certified under the PTQF

SECTOR SPECIFIC

  • Cleanroom or clean room is an environment, typically used in manufacturing or scientific research, with a low level of environmental pollutants such as dust, airborne microbes, aerosol particles, and chemical vapors. More accurately, a cleanroom has a controlled level of contamination that is specified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a specified particle size.
  • Electronic manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, test, manufacture, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The concept is also referred to as electronic contract manufacturing (ECM).
  • Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a swift discharge of electric current between two objects with different charges and different numbers of electrons. This exchange of electrons creates a large electromagnetic field buildup, resulting in ESD. Certain electronic devices are vulnerable to low-voltage ESD. For example, a hard drive is susceptible to just 10 volts. Integrated circuits (IC) are also prone to ESD and may be permanently damaged by high-voltage currents.
  • Front-end-of-line (FEOL) is the first portion of IC fabrication where the individual devices (transistors, capacitors, resistors, etc.) are patterned in the semiconductor. FEOL generally covers everything up to (but not including) the depositions of metal interconnect layers.
  • Hard disk drive (HDD) is a data storage device used for storing and retrieving digital information using rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material. An HDD retains its data even when powered off. Data is read in a random-access manner, meaning individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order rather than sequentially. An HDD consists of one or more rigid (“hard”) rapidly rotating disks (platters) with magnetic heads arranged on a moving actuator arm to read and write data to the surfaces.
  • A head-gimbal assembly of a hard disk drive includes a load beam connected to a pivot arm, a slider on which a magnetic head is mounted, an elastic support member having one end coupled to the load beam and the other free end portion at which the slider is supported, and a damper provided between the load beam and the slider to attenuate vibration transferred between the load beam and the slider.
  • IPC, the Association Connecting Electronics Industries, is a trade association whose aim is to standardize the assembly and production requirements of electronic equipment and assemblies. IPC is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a standards developing organization and is known globally for its standards. It publishes the most widely used acceptability standards in the electronics industry.
  • In manufacturing, lot traceability is readily-available access to the complete history of all manufactured lots, batches and serialized units, spanning production in multiple plants.
  • MSDS (an acronym for Material Safety Data Sheet) – is an important component of product stewardship and occupational safety and health. It is intended to provide workers and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner, and includes information such as physical data (melting point, point, flash, etc.), toxicity, health effects, first aid, reactivity, storage, disposal, protective equipment, and spill-handling procedures. It is a written document that outlines information and procedures for handling and working with chemicals. Current MSDS documents contain physical and chemical property information, potential hazard information, emergency procedures, and manufacturer contact information. MSDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements.
  • Out-of-control action plan (OCAP) – is a flowchart that guides employees’ reactions to out-of-control situations. It consists of activators (which define out-of-control conditions); checkpoints (which are likely causes for the conditions); and terminators (which contain the action that should resolve the conditions). OCAPs are dynamic. For example, Pareto analyses of OCAPs can identify commonly used terminators and suggests methods to eliminate frequent causes of problems or to modify the OCAPs that react to common out-of-control situations. Benefits of OCAPs include the empowerment given to the operators to troubleshoot problems. Other benefits are increased process efficiency and standardization of problem solving techniques.
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) – specialized clothing or equipment worn by employees for protection against health and safety hazards. Personal protective equipment is designed to protect many parts of the body, i.e., eyes, head, face, hands, feet, and ears.
  • Production line – is a set of sequential operations established in a manufacturing establishment whereby materials are put through a process to produce an end product. The machines and peripheral equipment are in the order they are used. The process is not stopped and restarted for each new product as the line is dedicated to producing a single or small group of products.
  • Quality management system (QMS) – is a collection of business processes focused on achieving your quality policy and quality objectives — i.e. what your customer wants and needs. It is expressed as the organizational structure, policies, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.
  • Statistical process control (SPC) – is a method of quality control which uses statistical methods. SPC is applied in order to monitor and control a process. Monitoring and controlling the process ensures that it operates at its full potential.

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