TRAINING REGULATIONS FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II
The ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II consists of competencies that a person must achieve to produce organic farm products such as chicken and vegetables including producing of organic supplements such as fertilizer, concoctions and extracts. It has two (2) elective competencies which are on raising organic hogs and raising organic small ruminants.
A student who has achieved this Course in ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II is competent to be:
- Organic Agriculture Farmer
- Organic Chicken Raiser
- Organic Hogs Raiser
- Organic Small Ruminants Raiser
- Organic Vegetables Farmer
- Organic Concoctions and Extracts Producer
- Organic Fertilizer Producer
ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II – TRAINING AND REGULATION MODULE
Course Title: ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II
Level: NC II
Nominal Training Duration : 232 Hours
This course is designed to enhance the knowledge, desirable skills and attitudes of Organic Agriculture Production NCll in accordance with industry standards. It covers core competencies such as: raise organic chicken, produce organic vegetable, produced organic fertilizer and produce organic concoctions and extracts. It also has two (2) elective competencies: raise organic hogs and raise organic small ruminants.
TRAINEE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
Trainees or students wishing to gain entry into this course should possess the following requirements:
- Able to read and write;
- With good moral character;
- Ability to communicate, both oral and written
- Physically fit and mentally healthy as certified by a Public Health Officer
COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II
This units of competency comprising this qualification include Basic, Common and Core Competencies. To obtain this course, all units prescribed for this qualification must be achieved.
These units of competency comprising this qualification include the following:
|UNIT CODE||CORE COMPETENCIES (96 Hours)|
|AGR612301||Raise organic chicken|
|AGR611306||Produce organic vegetables|
|AGR611301||Produce organic fertilizer|
|AGR611302||Produce organic concoctions and extracts|
|UNIT CODE||ELECTIVE COMPETENCIES (44 Hours)|
|AGR612302||Raise organic hogs|
|AGR612303||Raise organic small ruminants|
|UNIT CODE||COMMON COMPETENCIES (64 Hours)|
|AGR321201||Apply safety measures in farm operations|
|AGR321202||Use farm tools and equipment|
|AGR321203||Perform estimation and calculations|
|TRS311201||Develop and update industry knowledge|
|AGR321205||Perform record keeping|
|UNIT CODE||BASIC COMPETENCIES (18 Hours)|
|500311104||Work in a team environment|
|500311105||Participate in workplace communication|
|500311107||Practice career professionalism|
|500311108||Practice occupational health and safety procedures|
This section gives the details of the contents of the core units of competency required in Organic Agriculture Production NCII.
Core competency units comprising the qualification in ORGANIC AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION NC II
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : RAISE ORGANIC CHICKEN
UNIT CODE : AGR612301
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to raise organic chicken efficiently and effectively. It includes selecting healthy stocks, determine suitable chicken house requirements, install cage equipment, feed chicken, manage health and growth of chicken and harvesting activities.
- Select healthy stocks and suitable housing
- Breed/strains breeds are identified as per PNS-Organic Agriculture-Livestock and GAHP Guidelines
- Healthy chicks are selected based on industry acceptable indicator for healthy chicks.
- Suitable site for chicken house are determined based on PNS recommendations.
- Chicken house design is prepared based PNS recommendations.
- House equipment installation design is prepared in line with PNS recommendation and actual scenario.
- Set-up cage equipment
- House equipment are installed in line with housing equipment installation design
- Bedding materials are secured based on availability in the locality
- Bedding is prepared in accordance with housing equipment housing design
- Brooding facility is set-up in accordance with the housing equipment installation design.
- Feed chicken
- Suitable feed materials are selected based on availability in the locality and nutrient requirements of chicken
- Feed materials are prepared following enterprise prescribed formulation
- Animals are fed based on feeding management program
- Feeding is monitored following enterprise procedure
- Grow and harvest chicken
- Growth rate is monitored based on enterprise procedures
- Health care program are implemented based on enterprise procedures
- Sanitation and cleanliness program are implemented based on enterprise procedure
- Organic waste for fertilizer formulation are collected.
- Suitable chicken for harvest are selected based on market specifications.
- Production record is accomplished according to enterprise procedure.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC VEGETABLES
UNIT CODE : AGR611306
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to establish nursery, plant seedlings, perform plant care and perform harvest and post-harvest.
- Establish nursery
- Seeds are selected in accordance with the PNS, and NSQCS/BPI.
- Seedbeds are prepared in accordance with planting requirements based on Vegetable Production manual (VPM).
- Care and maintenance of seedlings are done in accordance with enterprise practice.
- Potting media are prepared in accordance with enterprise procedure.
- Plant seedlings
- Land preparation is carried out in accordance with enterprise practice
- Beneficial micro-organisms are introduced prior to planting in accordance with enterprise procedure
- Seedlings are transplanted/planted based on VPM recommendations
- Seedlings are watered based on VPM recommendations
- Perform plant care and management
- Water management is implemented according to plan.
- Effective control measures are determined on specific pest and diseases as described under the “pest, disease and weed management” of the PNS
- All missing hills are replanted to maintain the desired plant population of the area
- Plant rejuvenation/rationing are maintained according to PNS.
- Organic fertilizers are applied in accordance with fertilization policy of the PNS
- Perform harvest and post-harvest activities
- Products are checked using maturity indices according to to PNS, PNS-organic agriculture and enterprise practice.
- Marketable products are harvested according to PNS, PNSorganic agriculture and enterprise practice.
- Harvested vegetables are classified according to PNS, PNSorganic agriculture and enterprise practice.
- Appropriate harvesting tools and materials are used according to PNS.
- Post harvest practices are applied according to PNS and GAP recommendations
- Production record is accomplished according to enterprise procedures.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC FERTILIZER
UNIT CODE : AGR611301
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce organic fertilizers which include tasks such as preparing composting area and raw materials and carrying-out composting activities and finally, harvesting of fertilizer.
- Prepare composting area and raw materials
- Site is selected based on compost fertilizer
production requirements and
1.2 Site lay-out is prepared based on location.
1.3 Bed is prepared in accordance with production
1.4 Materials are gather based on production
requirements and PNS for organic fertilizer
1.5 Prepare raw materials following enterprise
procedure and PNS for organic fertilizer.
- Site is selected based on compost fertilizer
- Compost and harvest fertilizer
- Appropriate composting methods are applied based on production requirements
- Compost is monitored based PNS indicators of fully decomposed fertilizer
- Quality of harvest is checked based on PNS indicators of fully decomposed fertilizer
- Processing of compost fertilizer are carried- out based on production requirement.
- Record keeping is performed according to enterprise procedure.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRODUCE ORGANIC CONCOCTIONS AND EXTRACTS
UNIT CODE : AGR611301
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to produce organic concoctions and extracts for owned farm consumptions and not for commercial purposes or selling.
- Prepare for the production of various concoctions
- Work and storage areas are cleaned, sanitized and secured.
- Raw materials used are cleaned and freed from synthetic chemicals
- Tools, materials and equipment used are cleaned, freed from contaminations and must be of “food grade” quality
- Personal hygiene are observed according to OHS procedures.
- Process concoctions
- Raw materials are prepared in accordance with enterprise practice.
- Fermentation period is set based on enterprise practice.
- Various concoctions are fermented following to organic practices.
- Concoctions are harvested based on fermentation period of the concoction.
- Package concoctions
- Concoctions are contained in sanitized bottles and containers.
- Packaged concoctions are labeled and tagged in accordance with enterprise practice.
- Packaged concoctions are stored in appropriate place and temperature following organic practices.
- Production of concoctions are recorded using enterprise procedures.
This section gives the details of the contents of the elective units of competency required in Organic Agriculture Production NCII.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : RAISE ORGANIC HOGS
UNIT CODE : AGR611302
This unit covers the ability to carry-out the knowledge, skills and attitude required in raising organic hogs.
- Select healthy domestic hog breeds and suitable housing
- Hogs are identified according to breeds.
- Healthy hogs are selected based on industry acceptable indicator for healthy piglets.
- Suitable site for hog house are determined based on PNS recommendations.
- Hog house design is prepared based on PNS recommendations.
- Housing equipment installation design is prepared in line with PNS recommendation and actual farm conditions.
- Feed hogs
- Suitable feed materials are selected based on availability in the locality , nutrient source and according to PNS Organic Agriculture-Livestock and GAHP requirements.
- Feed materials are prepared following enterprise prescribed formulation.
- Animals are fed based on the standard feeding method/management:
- Feeding is monitored following enterprise procedures.
- Grow and finish hogs
- Growth rate is monitored based on enterprise procedures
- Health care program are implemented based on on PNS Organic Agriculture– Livestock or documented ethno-veterinary practices
- Sanitation and cleanliness program are implemented based on PNS-livestock.
- Organic waste for fertilizer production are collected following organic practices.
- Movement of hogs are managed based on PNS Organic Agriculture– Livestock and other relevant guidelines.
- Suitable hog finishers are selected based on market specifications
- Production record is accomplished according to enterprise procedures.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : RAISE ORGANIC SMALL RUMINANTS
UNIT CODE : AGR612303
This unit covers the ability to carry-out the knowledge, skills and attitude required in raising organic small ruminant.
- Select healthy breeders and suitable cages
- Bucks and rams are identified according to breed
- Healthy bucks/rams are selected based on industry acceptable indicator for healthy small ruminants.
- Suitable site for small ruminants are determined based on PNS recommendations.
- Small ruminants cage design is prepared based on Good Animal Husbandry Practices (GAHP), DENR and zoning ordinances PNS recommendations.
- Cage equipment installation design is prepared in line with PNS recommendation and actual farm conditions.
- Cage equipment are set-up in line with housing equipment installation design.
- Rice straws are placed as bedding materials based on PNS procedures.
- Feed small ruminants
- Suitable feed materials are selected based on availability in
the locality, nutrient requirements and PNS standards.
- Feed materials are prepared following PNS procedures.
- Maintenance of forage area are administered in accordance with PNS procedures.
- Animals are fed based on feeding management program of PNS.
- Feeding is monitored following PNS procedures.
- Suitable feed materials are selected based on availability in
- Manage breeding of small ruminants
- Signs of heat are monitored among sexually mature does
- Breeding systems are identified based on PNS guidelines.
- Animal pregnancy is monitored and tended based on enterprise procedures.
- Unproductive buck/ram and doe/ewe are culled based on enterprise procedures.
- Signs of heat are monitored among sexually mature does
- Manage does/ewes and their progenies
- Signs of approaching kidding/lambing are monitored following established farm procedures.
- Placenta and dead kids/lambs are disposed properly according to DENR law.
- Assisted kids/lambs to suckle colostrums according to organic practices.
- Lambs/kids are weaned properly at 3 months from birth based from established farm procedures.
- Lactating goats and sheep are kept in clean and quiet environment, and are separated from the breeder males based from established farm procedures.
- Forage grasses, supplements and adequate water supply are provided according to PNS recommendations.
- Grow and harvest small ruminants
- Growth rate is monitored based on enterprise procedures.
- Health care program are implemented based on PNS and GAHP requirements.
- Sanitation and cleanliness program are implemented based on GAHP requirements and PNS.
- Organic wastes for fertilizer production are collected according to PNS.
- Suitable small ruminants for harvest are selected based on PNS guidelines and market demand.
- Production record is accomplished according to enterprise procedure
UNIT TITLE : APPLY SAFETY MEASURES IN FARM OPERATIONS
UNIT CODE : AGR321201
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform safety measures effectively and efficiently. It includes identifying areas, tools, materials, time and place in performing safety measures.
- Determine areas of concern for safety measures
- Work tasks are identified in line with farm operations
- Place for safety measures are determined in line with farm operations
- Time for safety measures are determined in line with farm operations
- Appropriate tools, materials and outfits are prepared in line with job requirements
- Apply appropriate safety measures
- Tools and materials are used according to specifications and procedures
- Outfits are worn according to farm requirements
- Effectivity/shelf life/expiration of materials are strictly observed
- Emergency procedures are known and followed to ensure a safework requirement
- Hazards in the workplace are identified and reported in line with farm guidelines
- Safekeep/dispose tools, materials and outfit
- Used tools and outfit are cleaned after use and stored in designated areas
- Unused materials are properly labeled and stored according to manufacturers recommendation and farm requirements
- Waste materials are disposed according to manufacturers, government and farm requirements
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : USE TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT
UNIT CODE : AGR321202
USE FARM TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT (AGR321202) – This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to use farm tools and equipment. It includes selection, operation and preventive maintenance of farm tools and equipment.
- Select and use farm tools
- Identified appropriate farm tools according to requirement/use
- Farm tools are checked for faults and defective tools reported in accordance with farm procedures
- Appropriate tools and equipment are safely used according to job requirements and manufacturers conditions
- Select and operate farm equipment
- Identify appropriate farm equipment
- Instructional manual of the farm tools and equipment are carefully read prior to operation
- Pre-operation check-up is conducted in line with manufacturers manual
- Faults in farm equipment are identified and reported in line with farm procedures
- Farm equipment used according to its function
- Followed safety procedures
- Perform preventive maintenance
- Tools and equipment are cleaned immediately after use in line with farm procedures
- Routine check-up and maintenance are performed
- Tools and equipment are stored in designated areas in line with farm procedures
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM ESTIMATION AND CALCULATION
UNIT CODE : AGR321203
PERFORM ESTIMATION AND BASIC CALCULATION (AGR321203) – This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to perform basic workplace calculations
- Perform estimation
- Job requirements are identified from written or oral communications
- Quantities of materials and resources required to complete a work task are estimated
- The time needed to complete a work activity is estimated
- Accurate estimate for work completion are made
- Estimate of materials and resources are reported to appropriate person
- Perform basic workplace calculation
- Calculations to be made are identified according to job requirements
- Correct method of calculation identified
- System and units of measurement to be followed are ascertained
- Calculation needed to complete work tasks are performed using the four basic process of addition, division, multiplication and subtraction
- Calculate whole fraction, percentage and mixed when are used to complete the instructions
- Number computed in self checked and completed for alignment
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : DEVELOP AND UPDATE INDUSTRY KNOWLEDGE
UNIT CODE : AGR TRS311201
This unit of competency deals with the knowledge, skills and attitude required to access, increase and update industry knowledge. It includes seek information on the industry and update industry knowledge.
- Seek information on the industry
- Sources of information on the industry are correctly identified and accessed
- Information to assist effective work performance is obtained in line with job requirements
- Specific information on sector of work is accessed and updated
- Industry information is correctly applied to day-to-day work activities
- Update industry knowledge
- Informal and/or formal research is used to update general knowledge of the industry
- Updated knowledge is shared with customers and colleagues as appropriate and incorporated into day-today working activities
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM RECORD KEEPING
UNIT CODE : AGR321205
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitude required to carry-out inventory activities, maintain production record and prepare financial records.
- Carry out inventory activities
- Inventory inputs are determined according enterprise requirements.
- Defective tools and equipment are determined according to operation manuals
- Facilities are inspected according to according standard codes and laws.
- Maintain production record
- Production plan are prepared according to enterprise requirements.
- Schedule for production activities are prepared based from enterprise requirements and plan.
- Production report are prepared in accordance with enterprise reporting procedures
- Input and production are monitored using monitoring chart.
- Prepare financial records
- Production cost are computed using established computation procedures.
- Revenue is computed using established computation procedures.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PARTICIPATE IN WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION
UNIT CODE : 500311105
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to gather, interpret and convey information in response to workplace requirements.
- Communicate information about workplace processes
- Specific and relevant information is accessed from appropriate sources
- Effective questioning , active listening and speaking skills are used to gather and convey information
- Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas
- Appropriate non- verbal communication is used
- Appropriate lines of communication with supervisors and colleagues are identified and followed
- Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of information are used
- Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely
- Participate in workplace meetings and discussions
- Team meetings are attended on time
- Own opinions are clearly expressed and those of others are listened to without interruption
- Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and established protocols
- Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
- Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and maters concerning working conditions of employment are asked and responded to
- Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
- Complete relevant work related documents
- Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are completed accurately and legibly
- Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and documents
- Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
- Errors in recording information on forms/ documents are identified and properly acted upon
- Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according to organizational guidelines
UNIT OF COMPETENCY: WORK IN TEAM ENVIRONMENT
UNIT CODE : 500311106
This unit covers the skills, knowledge and attitudes to identify role and responsibility as a member of a team.
- Describe team role and scope
- The role and objective of the team is identified from available sources of information
- Team parameters, reporting relationships and responsibilities are identified from team discussions and appropriate external sources
- Identify own role and responsibility within team
- Individual role and responsibilities within the team environment are identified
- Roles and responsibility of other team members are identified and recognized
- Reporting relationships within team and external to team are identified
- Work as a team member
- Effective and appropriate forms of communications used and interactions undertaken with team members who contribute to known team activities and objectives
- Effective and appropriate contributions made to complement team activities and objectives, based on individual skills and competencies and workplace context
- Observed protocols in reporting using standard operating procedures
- Contribute to the development of team work plans based on an understanding of team’s role and objectives and individual competencies of the members.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PRACTICE CAREER PROFESSIONALISM
UNIT CODE : 500311107
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in promoting career growth and advancement.
- Integrate personal objectives with organizational goals
- Personal growth and work plans are pursued towards improving the qualifications set for the profession
- Intra- and interpersonal relationships is are maintained in the course of managing oneself based on performance evaluation
- Commitment to the organization and its goal is demonstrated in the performance of duties
- Set and meet work priorities
- Competing demands are prioritized to achieve personal, team and organizational goals and objectives.
- Resources are utilized efficiently and effectively to manage work priorities and commitments
- Practices along economic use and maintenance of equipment and facilities are followed as per established procedures
- Maintain professional growth and development
- Trainings and career opportunities are identified and availed of based on job requirements
- Recognitions are sought/received and demonstrated as proof of career advancement
- Licenses and/or certifications relevant to job and career are obtained and renewed
UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PRACTICE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
UNIT CODE : 500311108
This unit covers the outcomes required to comply with regulatory and organizational requirements for occupational health and safety.
- Identify hazards and risks
- Safety regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are clarified and explained based on organization procedures
- Hazards/risks in the workplace and their corresponding indicators are identified to minimize or eliminate risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization procedures
- Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire and other emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization procedures
- Evaluate hazards and risks
- Terms of maximum tolerable limits which when exceeded will result in harm or damage are identified based on threshold limit values (TLV)
- Effects of the hazards are determined
- OHS issues and/or concerns and identified safety hazards are reported to designated personnel in accordance with workplace requirements and relevant workplace OHS legislation
- Control hazards and risks
- Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) procedures for controlling hazards/risks in workplace are consistently followed
- Procedures for dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies are followed in accordance with organization OHS policies
- Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance with organization OHS procedures and practices
- Appropriate assistance is provided in the event of a workplace emergency in accordance with established organization protocol
- Maintain OHS awareness
- Emergency-related drills and trainings are participated in as per established organization guidelines and procedures
- OHS personal records are completed and updated in accordance with workplace requirements
DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Ad libitum feeding refers to the “free-feeding” weight of an animal, as opposed, for example, to the weight after a restricted diet or pair feeding.
- Agricultural inputs – are all substances or materials used in the production or handling of organic agricultural products.
- Agricultural products – are any agricultural commodity or product, whether raw or processed, including any commodity or product derived from the livestock for human or livestock consumption.
- Basal fertilizers – are fertilizer which is apply near the base of the stems.
- Bedding materials – are materials used to provide a bed for animals.
- Beneficial microorganisms – are also known as harmless microorganisms. These are the microorganisms which are involved in the production of oxygen, biomass control and ‘cleaning’ the Earth of remnants of dead organisms.
- Biodynamics – is a farming that combines organic methods, including crop rotation and composting with special plant, animal, and mineral preparations and the rhythmic influences of the sun, moon, planets, and stars.
- Bio-security measures – is a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, living modified organisms.
- Boar – is an uncastrated male swine usually kept for breeding.
- Breeder stock – is a female livestock whose offspring may be incorporated for organic operation at the time of their birth.
- Breeds – specific group of domestic animals or plants with a homogeneous appearance, behavior, and other characteristics that distinguish it from other animals or plants of the same species, and arrived at through selective breeding.
- Breeding is a selection of plants or animals to reproduce and/or further develop desired characteristics in succeeding generations.
- Broiler is any commercial meat type chicken usually raised up to six weeks of age.
- Brooder is an area used for raising young fowl that provides sufficient light and protection.
- Brooding is a management practice where chicks are given extra heat and proper care and management.
- Brucellosis is also called as Bang’s disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltar fever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever, or undulant fever; it is a highly contagious zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized milk or meat from infected animals or close contact with their secretions.
- Buck is the adult male of some animals, such as the deer, goat, antelope, or rabbit. It is an intact (still has testicals) male goat.
- Buffer zone is a clearly defined identifiable boundary are bordering any organic production site that is established to limit application or contact with prohibited substances.
- Cage Housing is a type or system of poultry housing where layers could be kept alone, by two or in big groups in cage.
- Colostrum is the first milk from a female animal after giving birth.
- Composting is the breaking down organic waste into humus that is reused as a beneficial nutrient can be done in several ways: vermicomposting, which is most beneficial for composting food waste; aerobic composting (with air); and anaerobic composting (without air).
- Compost is composed of organic matter that is recycled back into the earth. Organic matter may include lawn clippings, vegetable scraps from the kitchen, and untreated papers. These materials are combined and become a nutrient-rich mixture that enriches the soil.
- Concoctions is a combination of various ingredients, usually herbs, spices, condiments, powdery substances or minerals, mixed up together, minced, dissolved or macerated into a liquid so as they can be ingested or drunk. The term “concoction” is sometimes loosely used metaphorically in order to describe a cocktail or a motley assemblage of things, persons or ideas.
- Contamination is the pollution of organic product or land , in contact with any material that would render the product impure.
- Conventional agriculture is farming systems dependent on the input of artificial fertilizers and/or pesticides, or failing to conform to the Basic Standards in any other way.
- Conversion is the process of changing an agricultural system from conventional to organic. This covers of what is sometimes known as transition.
- Crop rotation is the practice of alternating the species or families of annual and/or biennial crops grown on a specific field in a planned pattern or sequence so as to break weeds, pest and disease cycles and to improve soil fertility and organic matter content.
- Crossbreed is a group of animals produced by mating two or more different breeds or strains of animals.
- Cover cropping is a crop that provides temporary protection for delicate seedlings and/or provides a canopy for seasonal soil protection and improvement between normal crop-production periods. Except in orchards where permanent vegetative cover is maintained, cover crops are usually grown for one year or less. When plowed under and incorporated into the soil, cover crops are also referred to as green manure crops.
- Culling is the removal of undesirable or inferior animals in the herd based on important economic traits and overall performance.
- Depreciation cost is a term used to account for the loss of value in an item over time.
- Deworming (sometimes known as worming or drenching) is the giving of an anthelmintic drug (a wormer, dewormer, or drench) to an animal to rid it of intestinal parasites, such as roundworm and tapeworm.
- Disinfect is to reduce by physical or chemical means, the number of microorganism in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability.
- Doe is the adult female of some animals, such as the deer, goat, antelope, or rabbit use for breeding purposes.
- Dung is the organic material that is used to fertilize land, usually consisting of the faeces and urine of domestic livestock, with or without litter such as straw, hay, or bedding.
- Dry sow is a sow whose litter has been weaned but which has not yet been bred or is not pregnant.
- Estrus is a period of time when the female will accept male. Also known as heat period.
- Ewe is the adult female sheep.
- Enzymes are biological molecules that catalyze (i.e., increase the rates of) chemical reactions. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process, called substrates, are converted into different molecules, called products.
- Feed materials is the straight feeding stuffs intended for feeding as such to animals and also feed ingredients intended for use in the manufacture of compound feeds.
- Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. In simple terms, it is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol.
- Food additives is the enrichment, supplement or any other optional components added to a product, which affects it’s keeping quality, consistency, color, smell, taste or other organoleptic properties.
- Food grade quality refers to the minimum standard for substances to qualify as fit for human consumption or permitted to come in contact with food.
- Farrowing is the act of giving birth in pigs or swine.
- Feeds is any non-injurious edible material having nutrient value to animals. May be harvest or pasture forage, range, grain or other processed feed for livestock or game animals.
- Fertilizer is any organic or inorganic material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is added to a soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
- Forage is a vegetative material in a fresh, dried, or ensiled state (pasture, hay or silage) that is fed to livestock.
- Free range is of, relating to, or produced by animals, especially poultry, that have access to outside spaces and are permitted to graze or forage and range freely for food rather than being confined in an enclosure or feedlot as with free-range chickens. Sometimes, referred to as free-roaming. Conditions for the animals are also typically less crowded.
- Gait is a manner of walking or moving of foot.
- Germination test is a test that determines the maximum germination potential, or viability of the seed.
- Gestation Period refers to the period of carrying the young in the womb.
- Gilt is a young female hog that has not given birth yet.
- Green manure is a crop that is incorporated into the soil for the purpose of soil improvement.
- Growth rate is a measure of the increase in size, mass or number of crops over a period of time.
- Habitat is the area over which a plant or animal species naturally exist, the area where a species occurs. e.g. seashore, riverbank, woodland, grassland, etc.
- Harrowing is breaking up and smoothing out the surface of the soil.
- Harvest is the process of gathering mature crops from the fields.
- Herbal medicine is actually products which is derived from a plant or plant part which are used for its scent, flavor or therapeutic properties. Also, herbal medicine products are dietary supplements that people take to improve their health.
- Inbreeding is the mating of closely related animals in a herd.
- Inter cropping is the growing two or more crops as a mixture in the same field at the same time. Intercropping can be one way of adding diversity to a crop system.
- Incubation refers to the development of the birds from the fertilized eggs to fully formed chicks.
- Ingredient is any substance, including a food additive, used in the manufacture or preparation of a food or present in the final product, although in a modified form.
- Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall.
- Kidding/lambing is the act of a pregnant doe giving birth.
- Fish Amino Acid (FAA) is a liquid made from fish waste. FAA is of great value to both plants and microorganisms in their growth, because it contains an abundant amount of nutrients and various types of amino acids.
- Labeling is any written, printed or graphic presentation that is present on the label of a product accompanies the product or displayed near the product.
- Land preparation is a farm activity typically involves plowing, harrowing, and leveling the field to make it suitable for crop establishment.
- Lactating describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
- Leptospirosis is a rare and severe bacterial infection that occurs when people are exposed to certain environment.
- Livestock refers to domestic animals kept for use on a farm and raised for sale and profit.
- Litter is the offsprings at one birth of a multiparous or animal like swine.
- Litter Size refers to the aggregate number of piglets per farrowing.
- Natural Calcium Phosphate Micro Nutrients (CALPHOS) buffered calcium phosphate solution for foliar application used to improve the quality, shelf life and storability of horticultural crops.
- Nutrients are food elements or substance found in the feeds such as protein, carbohydrates, fats and others.
- Microbe is a minute, often disease-causing organism.
- Mulching A protective covering, usually of organic matter such as leaves, straw, or peat, placed around plants to prevent the evaporation of moisture, the freezing of roots, and the growth of weeds.
- Organic in this text the word refers to the particular farming and processing systems described in these standards and not in the classical Chemical sense (the latter shall be clearly marked with a † for ease of identification). The term Organic is nearly synonymous in other languages to “biological” or “ecological.”
- Organic farming is more than agricultural production without the use of synthetic chemicals or genetically modified organisms, growth regulators, and livestock feed additives. Organic farming emphasizes on a holistic farm management approach, where rotations and animals play an integral role to the system.
- Organic farmer any farmer who uses organic farming methods.
- Organic feed animal feed produced organically. It should be produced on farm, but it may also be imported. The recommended objective to produce feed on farm remains a challenge in organic livestock and aquaculture production.
- Organic waste is anything that comes from plants or animals that is biodegradable.
- Organic agriculture as an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity. It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, or enhance ecological harmony.
- Organoleptic refers to any sensory properties of a food or other products, including taste, colour, odour and texture.
- Pasture land use for livestock grazing that is managed to provide feed value and maintain or improve soil, water and vegetative resources.
- Permaculture (permanent+agriculture) is the conscious design and maintenance of agriculturally productive ecosystems which have the diversity, stability, and resilience of natural ecosystems. It is a land use and community building movement which strives for the harmonious integration of human dwellings, microclimate, annual and perennial plants, animals, soils, and water into stable, productive communities. The focus is not on these elements themselves, but rather on the relationships created among them by the way we place them in the landscape.
- Integrated Pest management is a broad based approach that integrates a range of practices for economic control of pests.
- Predators organism which hunts and eats other organisms. These include both carnivores, which eat animals, and herbivores, which eat plants.
- Plowing in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting.
- Post-harvesting is the stage of crop production immediately following harvest, including cooling, cleaning, sorting and packing. The instant a crop is removed from the ground, or separated from its parent plant, it begins to deteriorate. Post-harvest treatment largely determines final quality, whether a crop is sold for fresh consumption, or used as an ingredient in a processed food product.
- Potting media is a medium in which to grow plants, herbs and vegetables in a pot or other durable container.
- Poultry a collective term for birds used either for breeding, egg production, meat production and recreation.
- Production means the operations undertaken to supply agricultural products in the state in which they occur on the farm,
including initial packaging and labelling of the product.
- Production cost combined costs of raw material and labor incurred in producing goods.
- Purebreeding is the mating of the unrelated individuals in the same breed.
- Putrification process is also known as decomposition, which is the breakdown or decay of organic materials.
- Ram is an intact (still has testicals) male sheep, used for breeding.
- Rapid composting method is composting method which apply new, different procedures and materials to speed up the process.
- Ration the total amount of feeds taken in by an animal during a 24 hour period.
- Raw materials all ingredients other than additives.
- Rooster a matured male poultry used for breeding.
- Rotavator a type of machine with rotating blades that break up soil.
- Ruminants refers to animals with complex digestive system e.g. cattle, carabao, goats and sheep.
- Seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted. Often it comprises not only the soil but also a specially prepared cold frame, hotbed or raised bed used to grow the seedlings in a controlled environment into larger young plants before transplanting them into a garden or field. A seedling bed is used to increase the number of seeds that germinate.
- Seedlings is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed. Seedling development starts with germination of the seed. A typical young seedling consists of three main parts: the radicle (embryonic root), the hypocotyl (embryonic shoot), and the cotyledons (seed leaves).
- Selection refers to the process of choosing males and females with desirable characteristics either for breeding or replacement stocks.
- Simple stomach/nonruminant animals – animals that possess simple digestive system e.g. poultry, horse and pigs.
- Sow a mature female hog that had given birth.
- Stag a male swine castrated after sexual maturity.
- Standards are norms ,sets of guidelines, requirements and principles that are used as in organic agriculture and processing. The term “standards” as used here refers to Philippine National Standards relevant to local agroecosystems production.
- Surface irrigation system is defined as the group of application techniques where water is applied and distributed over the soil surface by gravity. It is by far the most common form of irrigation throughout the world and has been practiced in many areas virtually unchanged for thousands of years.
- Swine a collective term for hogs.
- Tail wagging is a behavior that may function as both attractivity and proceptivity. It is one of the signs of estrus exhibited by females; high rates of tail wagging would arouse males, increasing sexual performance.
- Waterer equipment used in providing water to animals.
- Weaning refers to a young animal of either sex which has been separated from the mother at the end of the lactation period.
- Weeding to clear or remove weeds.
- Vermicomposting the process of using earthworms to breakdown kitchen and garden waste, to create a faster than normal composting; to be précised the product is called vermicompost (or worm compost).
- Vibriosis – in cattle is an infectious bacterial (Campylobacter fetus) disease of the genital tract causing infertility and occasional abortions. It is a venereal disease spread by infected bulls when they mate susceptible cows and heifers. It is considered to be the most important cause of infertility in cattle.