FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II – TESDA COURSE MODULE

TESDA TRAINING REGULATIONS FOR FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II

The TESDA Course in FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II consists of competencies that a person must achieve to be able to produce all types of molds and cores using different kinds of binders and sand. He may produce the molds or cores manually or he may use molding machines and core making machines.

Molds may be produced by a mix of molding sand with a binding agent ( such as bentonite clay or chemical resins) formed in metal or wooden flasks using patterns attached to molding machines. These may also be formed manually specially if these are large molds, using sand rammers to compact the molding sand.

Cores are produced using sand mixed with core binders compacted into core boxes and cured with heat or catalyst to harden into the required shape. The cores formed using different binders are finished and painted with coatings of graphite or refractory. Cores are set in the molds before it is closed and prepared for pouring. In most cases the molders pour metal into the molds they produced.

This unit covers all specifications interpreted from drawings, technical sketches and/or customer requirements. Tasks undertaken include utilizing appropriate sand binding agents, patterns, core boxes and proper machineries using principles and techniques, designated procedures, correct and appropriate tools and equipment.

The molder should also be able to inspect, measure and interpret drawings and repair procedures; sets up and operates variety of specialized molding and core making machines and uses precision measuring instrument in operating and maintaining patterns and molding equipment.

This Qualification is packaged from the competency map of the Automotive Industry (Manufacturing sub-sector)

A student who has achieved this TESDA Course in FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II is competent to be:

  • Foundry Molder

FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II – TRAINING AND REGULATION MODULE

Course Title: FOUNDRY MOLDING
Level: NC II
Nominal Training Duration : 158 Hours

This course is designed to equip individual with competency to produce all types of molds and cores using different kinds of binders and sand manually or with the use molding machines and core making machines.

It also includes competencies on interpreting specifications, drawings, technical sketches and/or customer requirements. Tasks undertaken would also include utilizing appropriate sand binding agents, patterns, core boxes and proper machineries using principles and techniques; designated procedures, correct and appropriate tools and equipment; inspection, measure and repair procedures; sets up and operates variety of specialized molding and core making machines and uses precision measuring instrument in operating and maintaining patterns and molding equipment.

This course is also designed to provide basic and common skills to equip individual with operational skills in foundry molding.

TRAINEE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS

This section specifies the qualifications of trainees and educational experience. Other requirements like health and physical requirements are also stated. Passing entry written examinations may also be indicated if necessary.

  • With background in basic machining
  • With good moral character;
  • Ability to communicate both oral and written; and
  • Physically and mentally fit

COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II

This units of competency comprising this qualification include Basic, Common, Elective and Core Competencies.

To obtain this TESDA course in FOUNDRY MOLDING NC II, all units prescribed for this qualification must be achieved.

These units of competency comprising this qualification include the following:

UNIT CODE CORE COMPETENCIES (120 Hours)
ALT812301 Prepare & Mix Sand for Metal Molding and Coremaking
ALT812302 Produce Molds by Hand (Jobbing)
ALT812303 Produce Cores by Hand (Jobbing)
ALT812304 Operate Sand Molding Machines
ALT812305 Operate Sand Core Making Machines
ALT812306 Pour Molten Metal to Molds
ALT821303 Use and Maintain Measuring Instrument
UNIT CODE COMMON COMPETENCIES (20 Hours)
ALT742201 Read & Interpret Engineering Drawings
ALT311202 Perform Mensuration and Calculation
ALT723203 Read, Interpret and Apply Specifications and Manuals
ALT723205 Perform Shop Maintenance
UNIT CODE BASIC COMPETENCIES (18 Hours)
500311105 Participate in workplace communication
500311106 Work in a team environment
500311107 Practice career professionalism
500311108 Practice occupational health and safety procedures

CORE COMPETENCIES

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PREPARE AND MIX SAND FOR MOLDING AND COREMAKING
UNIT CODE: ALT812301

This unit covers loading up a mixer, mixing the sand, taking test samples and interpreting the results, discharging the sand and cleaning the mixer.

  1. Load mixer (mill/muller)
    • All pre start-up checks are performed safely and according to standard operating procedures.
    • Formula for sand mix is determined according to standard operating procedures.
    • Materials are measure
  2. Mix sand
    • Sand is mixed for correct time to specifications.
    • The performance of mixer and the condition of the sand is monitored.
    • Material supply is maintained.
    • Faults are reported.
  3. Take and test samples
    • Sample is correctly extracted.
    • Test is applied in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Test results are compared against specifications.
    • Adjustments to formula/mix are made as required in accordance with standard operating procedures.
  4. Discharge mixture
    • Load is charged correctly according to standard operating procedures.
    • Unwanted treated sand is disposed of according to standard operating procedures.
  5. Clean mixer
    • Mixer is shut down to standard safety and operating procedures.
    • Mixer is cleaned according to standard operating procedures.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PRODUCE MOLDS BY HAND (JOBBING)
UNIT CODE: ALT812302

This unit covers hand making of sand molds and cores for metal casting.

  1. Identify job requirements
    • Job requirements are correctly identified from drawings, instructions and specifications.
    • Material is selected appropriate to job requirements.
  2. Determine sequence of operation
    • Sequence of operation including job set-up is determined for maximum efficiency and to meet job specifications.
  3. Select inspect and prepare pattern equipment
    • Pattern equipment is correctly identified from specificationsto standard operating procedures.
    • Pattern equipment is inspected to specifications, and damaged patterns are identified for repair or replacement to standard operating procedures. Pattern is assembled to specification.
    • Pattern equipment is set up to specification according to standard operating procedures.
  4. Make mould
    • Appropriate mold-making equipment is selected and positioned according to standard operating procedures.
    • Appropriate molding media is selected to produce mold to specification.
    • Molding media is used to produce mold according to standard operating procedures.
    • Molds are rammed up with joints and drawbacks as required to standard operating procedures.
    • Parting and stripping systems are utilized in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Loose pieces, vents, risers and runners are positioned and secured as required to standard operating procedures.
    • Pattern and loose pieces are removed from mold and core box in a safe manner least likely to cause damage to the pattern and in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Core is positioned in prints utilizing chaplets and chills as required and vented to specification according to standard operating procedures.
    • Mold is closed and checked for compliance to component specification in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Mold is inspected and repaired as required.
    • Mold and core is cleaned and painted according to specification using standard operating procedures.
    • Mold is secured according to standard operating procedures.
    • Pouring basin is selected or manufactured to specification and positioned in accordance with standard operating procedures.
  5. Clean and restore work area
    • All materials/debris is cleared and work site cleaned and left in a safe state.
    • Unwanted treated sand is disposed of according to standard operating procedures and legislative and statutory requirements.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PRODUCE CORES BY HAND (JOBBING)
UNIT CODE: ALT812303

This unit covers hand making of sand cores for metal casting.

  1. Identify job requirements
    • Job requirements are correctly identified from drawings, instructions and specifications.
    • Material is selected appropriate to job requirements.
  2. Determine sequence of operation
    • Sequence of operation including job set-up is determined for maximum efficiency and to meet job specifications.
  3. Select inspect and prepare core box equipment
    • Core box is correctly identified from specifications to standard operating procedures.
    • The core box is inspected to specifications, and damaged patterns are identified for repair or replacement to standard operating procedures. Core box is assembled to specification.
    • Core box is set up to specification according to standard operating procedures.
  4. Make sand core
    • Core box is positioned and wires and gagers are inserted as required. Then cavity is filled with mixed core sand according to standard operating procedures.
    • Core box is closed and checked for compliance to component specification in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Appropriate core making equipment is selected and positioned according to standard operating procedures.
    • Appropriate core curing media is selected to produce core to specification.
    • Core is secured according to standard operating procedures.
    • Core curing media is used to produce core according to standard operating procedures.
    • Core is allowed to harden or cure
    • Parting and stripping systems are utilized in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Core is finished by removing fins and protrusions, and then coated with refractory core wash.
    • Core is secured and stored according to standard operating procedures.
    • Core box is inspected and repaired as required.
    • Core box is cleaned and painted according to specification using standard operating procedures.
  5. Clean and restore work area
    • All materials/debris is cleared and work site cleaned and left in a safe state.
    • Unwanted treated sand is disposed of according to standard operating procedures and legislative and statutory requirements.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: OPERATE SAND MOLDING MACHINES
UNIT CODE: ALT812304

This unit covers operating automatic and semi-automatic sand molding and core making machines

  1. Determine job requirements
    • Instructions and specifications are interpreted correctly.
  2. Conduct preoperational checks
    • Pattern is selected and inspected to specifications and cleaned as required. Damaged patterns/core boxes are identified for repair or replacement to standard operating procedures.
    • Pattern is set up in bolster and core box according to standard operating procedures.
  3. Operate machine to produce mould/cores
    • Appropriate molding media is selected to produce mould and core to specification.
    • Moulds are filled to specification according to standard operating procedures.
    • Machine is operated in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Machine is unloaded safely to standard operating procedures.
    • Moulds are stripped, inspected and painted as required according to standard operating procedures.
  4. Assemble moulds/cores
    • Molds are dried and vented as required to specification and closed in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Runner bush is set to specification as required.
  5. Clean and restore work
    • All material/debris is cleared and work site is cleaned and left in a safe state.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: OPERATE SAND CORE MAKING MACHINES
UNIT CODE: ALT812305

This unit covers operating automatic and semi-automatic sand moulding and core making machines

  1. Determine job requirements
    • Instructions and specifications are interpreted correctly.
  2. Conduct preoperational checks
    • Core box is selected and inspected to specifications and cleaned as required. Damaged core boxes are identified for repair or replacement to standard operating procedures.
    • Core box is set up in bolster according to standard operating procedures.
  3. Operate machine to produce cores
    • Appropriate core making media is selected to produce core to specification.
    • Cores are filled to specification according to standard operating procedures.
    • Machine is operated in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Machine is unloaded safely to standard operating procedures.
    • Cores are stripped, inspected and painted as required according to standard operating procedures.
  4. Assemble cores
    • Cores are dried, glued and vented as required to specification and closed in accordance with standard operating procedures.
  5. Clean and restore work
    • All material/debris is cleared and work site is cleaned and left in a safe state.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: POUR MOLTEN METAL TO MOLDS
UNIT CODE: ALT812306

This unit covers the competency in manually pouring molten metal. to molds

  1. Prepare for pouring molten metal
    • The condition of the mould is checked according to standard operating procedures.
    • The condition of the ladle is checked according to standard operating procedures.
    • The temperature of molten metal is checked for conformance to specification, and pouring method is sequenced to standard operating procedures.
    • The capacity of the required pour is identified against specification according to standard operating procedures.
  2. Preheat or prepare ladle
    • The ladle is preheated/ prepared to receive molten metal.
  3. Transfer ladle to pouring area
    • Safety clips are checked according to standard operating procedures.
    • The ladle is filled and transferred to the pouring area in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Additives are determined from specification and added to molten metal as required.
  4. Maintain quality of metal as required
    • Slag/dross is removed where necessary.
    • The temperature is monitored as required.
    • Chemical analysis is undertaken and remedial action is applied as required to standard operating procedures.
  5. Pour molten metal
    • Personnel in the immediate area of the metal pour are informed that pour is to take place and appropriate safety clothing and equipment is used as specified in standard operating procedures.
    • Metal is poured safely to specification and in accordance with standard operating procedures.
    • Metal is poured at an appropriate and continuous rate.
    • A test bar is poured in accordance with standard operating procedures as required. The ladle is emptied of excess metal and cleaned and maintained according to standard operating procedures. Ladle is returned to appropriate location.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY: USE AND MAINTAIN MEASURING INSTRUMENT
UNIT CODE: ALT821303

This unit identifies the competence required to measure components or sections using non-specialist instrument and maintain the measuring instrument.

  1. Measure dimensions or variables using appropriate instrument
    • Measurement of dimensions and variables are completed without causing damage to any instrument or components
    •  Appropriate measuring instrument is selected
    • Relevant measuring techniques are used and results appropriately recorded
    • All measuring activities are carried out according to industry regulations/guidelines OHS & requirements and enterprise/procedures policies
  2. Maintain measuring instrument
    • Maintenance of measuring instrument is achieved without causing damage to any instrument or component
    • Routine care and storage of measuring instrument is undertaken according to manufacture specifications
    • Checking and calibrating of measuring devices is done prior to use.
    • All maintenance activities of measuring instruments are carried out according to industry regulations/guidelines OHS legislation, and enterprise procedures policies

COMMON COMPETENCIES (AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING)

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : READ, INTERPRET AND APPLY ENGINEERING DRAWINGS.
UNIT CODE : ALT742201

This unit deals with identifying, interpreting and applying specification from Engineering blue prints or drawings that provides the measurements of the product and pattern that is to be produced.

  1. Identify and access engineering drawings/specification
    • Appropriate Engineering drawings are identified and accessed as per job requirements.
    • Version and date of drawing is checked to ensure correct specification and procedure are identified.
  2. Interpret drawings
    • Relevant dimensions and sections of the drawings/specifications are located in relation to the work to be conducted
    • Information in the manual are interpreted in accordance to industry practices
  3. Apply information in the drawings & specifications
    • Engineering drawing is interpreted according to job requirements
    • Work steps are correctly identified in accordance with the specifications in the drawings.
    • Dimensional data and shape are applied according to the given task
  4. Store drawings
    • The drawings and specification are stored properly to ensure prevention of damage, ready access and updating of information when required in accordance with company requirements

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM MENSURATION AND CALCULATION
UNIT CODE : ALT311202

This unit includes identifying, caring for, handling, using and maintaining measuring instruments.

  1. Select measuring instruments
    • Object or component to be measured is identified
    • Correct specifications are obtained from relevant source
    • Appropriate measuring instrument is selected according to job requirements
  2. Carry out measurements and calculation
    • Measuring tools are selected in line with job requirements
    • Accurate measurements are obtained to job
    • Calculation needed to complete work tasks are performed using the four basic process of addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (x) and division (/).
    • Calculations involving fractions, percentages and mixed numbers are used to complete workplace tasks.
    • Numerical computation is self-checked and corrected for accuracy
    • Instruments are read to the limit of accuracy of the tool.
  3. Maintain measuring instruments
    • Measuring instruments are kept free from corrosion
    • Measuring instruments are not dropped to avoid damage
    • Measuring instruments are cleaned before and after using.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : READ, INTERPRET AND APPLY SPECIFICATION AND MANUALS.
UNIT CODE : ALT723203

This unit deals with identifying, interpreting and applying service specification manuals, maintenance procedure manuals and periodic maintenance manual.

  1. Identify and access manual/specification
    • Appropriate manuals are identified and accessed as per job requirements.
    • Version and date of manual is checked to ensure correct specification and procedure are identified.
  2. Interpret manuals
    • Relevant sections, chapters of manuals/specifications are located in relations to the work to be conducted
    • Information and procedure in the manual are interpreted in accordance to industry practices
  3. Apply information in manual
    • Manual is interpreted according to job requirements
    • Work steps are correctly identified in accordance with manufacturer specification
    • Manual data is applied according to the given task
    • All correct sequencing and adjustments are interpreted in accordance with information contained on the manual or specifications
  4. Store manuals
    • Manual or specification are stored appropriately to ensure prevention of damage, ready access and updating of information when required in accordance with company requirements

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM SHOP MAINTENANCE
UNIT CODE : ALT723205

This unit deals with inspecting and cleaning of work area including tools, equipment and facilities. Storage and checking of tools/ equipment and disposal of used supplies/materials are also incorporated in this competency.

  1. Inspect/clean tools and work area
    • Cleaning solvent used as per workshop/tools cleaning requirement
    • Work area is checked and cleaned
    • Wet surface/spot in work area is wiped and dried
  2. Store/arrange tools and shop equipment
    • Tools/equipment are checked and stored in their respective shelves/location
    • Corresponding labels are posted and visible
    • Tools are safely secured and logged in the records
  3. Dispose wastes/used lubricants
    • Containers for used lubricants are visibly labeled
    • Wastes/used lubricants are disposed as per workshop SOP
  4. Report damaged tools/equipment
    • Complete inventory of tools/equipment is maintained
    • Damaged tools/equipment/facilities are identified and repair recommendation is given
    • Reports prepared has no error/discrepancy

BASIC COMPETENCIES

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PARTICIPATE IN WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION
UNIT CODE : 500311105

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to gather, interpret and convey information in response to workplace requirements.

  1. Obtain and convey workplace information
    • Specific and relevant information is accessed from appropriate sources
    • Effective questioning, active listening and speaking skills are used together and convey information
    • Appropriate medium is used to transfer information and ideas
    • Appropriate non- verbal communication is used
    • Appropriate lines of communication with supervisors and colleagues are identified and followed
    • Defined workplace procedures for the location and storage of information are used
    • Personal interaction is carried out clearly and concisely
  2. Participate in workplace meetings and discussions
    • Team meetings are at ended on time
    • Own opinions are clear expressed and those of others are listened to without interruption
    • Meeting inputs are consistent with the meeting purpose and established protocols
    • Workplace interactions are conducted in a courteous manner
    • Questions about simple routine workplace procedures and matters concerning working conditions of employment are asked and responded to.
    • Meetings outcomes are interpreted and implemented
  3. Complete relevant work related documents
    • Range of forms relating to conditions of employment are completed accurately and legibly
    • Workplace data is recorded on standard workplace forms and documents
    • Basic mathematical processes are used for routine calculations
    • Errors in recording information on forms/documents are identified and properly acted upon
    • Reporting requirements to supervisor are completed according to organizational guidelines

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : WORK IN TEAM ENVIRONMENT
UNIT CODE : 500311106

This unit covers the skills, knowledge and attitudes to identify role and responsibility as a member of a team.

  1. Describe team role and scope
    • The role and objective of the team is identified from available sources of information
    • Team parameters, reporting relationships and responsibilities are identified from team discussions and appropriate external sources.
  2. Identify own role and responsibility within team
    • Individual role and responsibilities within the team environment are identified.
    • Roles and responsibility of other team members are identified and recognized.
    • Reporting relationships within team and external to team are identified.
  3. Work as a team member
    • Effective and appropriate forms of communications used and interactions undertaken with team members who contribute to known team activities and objectives.
    • Effective and appropriate contributions made to complement team activities and objectives, based on individual skills and competencies and workplace context.
    • Observed protocols in reporting using standard operating procedures.
    • Contribute to the development of team work plans based on an understanding of team’s role and objectives and individual competencies of the members.

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRACTICE CAREER PROFESSIONALISM
UNIT CODE : 500311107

This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes in promoting career growth and advancement.

  1. Integrate personal objectives with organizational goals
    • Personal growth and work plans are pursued towards improving the qualifications set for the profession
    • Intra- and interpersonal relationships is are maintained in the course of managing oneself based on performance evaluation
    • Commitment to the organization and its goal is demonstrated in the performance of duties
  2. Set and meet work priorities
    • Competing demands are prioritized to achieve personal, team and organizational goals and objectives.
    • Resources are utilized efficiently and effectively to manage work priorities and commitments
    • Practices along economic use and maintenance of equipment and facilities are followed as per established procedures
  3. Maintain professional growth and development
    • Trainings and career opportunities are identified and availed of based on job requirements
    • Recognitions are sought/received and demonstrated as proof of career advancement
    • Licenses and/or certifications relevant to job and career are obtained and renewed

UNIT OF COMPETENCY : DEVELOP CAREER AND LIFE DECISIONSUNIT OF COMPETENCY : PRACTICE  OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY PROCEDURES
UNIT CODE : 500311108

This unit covers the outcomes required to comply with regulatory and organizational requirements for occupational health and safety.

  1. Identify hazards and risks
    • Safety regulations and workplace safety and hazard control practices and procedures are clarified and explained based on organization procedures
    • Hazards/risks in the workplace and their corresponding indicators are identified to minimize or eliminate risk to co-workers, workplace and environment in accordance with organization procedures
    • Contingency measures during workplace accidents, fire and other emergencies are recognized and established in accordance with organization procedures
  2. Evaluate hazards and risks
    • Terms of maximum tolerable limits which when exceeded will result in harm or damage are identified based on threshold limit values (TLV)
    • Effects of the hazards are determined
    • OHS issues and/or concerns and identified safety hazards are reported to designated personnel in accordance with workplace requirements and relevant workplace OHS legislation
  3. Control hazards and risks
    • Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) procedures for controlling hazards/risks in workplace are consistently
      followed
    • Procedures for dealing with workplace accidents, fire and emergencies are followed in accordance with organization OHS policies
    • Personal protective equipment (PPE) is correctly used in accordance with organization OHS procedures and practices
    • Appropriate assistance is provided in the event of a workplace emergency in accordance with established organization protocol
  4. Maintain OHS awareness
    • Emergency-related drills and trainings are participated in as per established organization guidelines and procedures
    • OHS personal records are completed and updated in accordance with workplace requirements

DEFINITION OF TERMS (FOUNDRY)

  • Alloy – An alloy is a homogeneous blend of two or more elements at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material as metallic properties.
  • Carbon Dioxide  – Carbon Dioxide Process consist of mixing a clean dry silica sand with a silicate binder, compacting the mixture to shape and hardening it by passing carbon dioxide gas.
  • Casting – Casting is the term used to describe both the process and the product when molten metal is poured and solidified in a mold.
  • Chemical Analysis – Analytical chemistry is the science that seeks ever improved means of measuring the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials.
  • Cope – In a two-part mold, the cope is the name given to the top half of the pattern, flask, mold, or core.
  • Core – The core is a sand shape that is inserted into the mold to produce the internal features of a casting, such as, holes or passages for water-cooling.
  • Core Box – A core box is the mold or die used to produce casting cores.
  • Core Print – The core print is the region added to the pattern, core, or mold that is used to locate and support the core within the mold.
  • Draft – Draft is the taper on a pattern or casting that permits it to be withdrawn from the mold.
  • Drag – The drag is the bottom part of the two-part mold.
  • Dross – Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal bath. It appears usually on the melting of low melting point metals or alloys such as aluminum, copper, magnesium or each alloys.
  • Fettle / Finishing – The process of cleaning the casting, removal of excess metal, grinding and inspection operation which may be required for some casting process.
  • Flask – The flask is the box that contains the molding aggregate.
  • Foundry – A Foundry is a factory which produces metal castings from either ferrous or non-ferrous alloys.
  • Furnace – Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it.
  • Gate – Gate is controlled entrances to the mold cavity.
  • Gating System – Gating system is the network of channels used to deliver the molten metal to the mold cavity.
  • Green Sand – The term Green Sand refers to that molded sand mixture which is allowed to remain moist and is used in casting ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
  • Melting – The process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gasses and elements from the molten metal. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific range specified by industry and/or internal standards. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made.
  • Molding – Is the process of making the mold cavity with a necessary allowances such as shrinkage, machining, taper, and surface finish. Usually it is done with green sand as the molding medium.
  • Mold Cavity – The mold cavity is the shaped hole into which the molten metal is poured and solidified to produce the desired casting.
  • Parting Line – Parting Line or Parting Surface is the interface that separates the cope and drag halves of a mold, flask, or pattern. The same part can also be found in some core making processes.
  • Pattern – The pattern is the approximate copy of the final casting. The molding material (sand for sand molds) is then packed around the pattern and the pattern is removed to produce the mold cavity.
  • Pattern Shrinkage Allowance – Dimensions added to the pattern to compensate for the solid shrinkage or contraction occurs in the solidified casting as it cools to room / ambient temperature.
  • Pouring Cup – A Pouring Cup or Pouring Basin is the portion of the gating system that initially receives the molten metal from the pouring vessel and controls its delivery to rest of the mold.
  • Refractories – Refers to materials that are used to make crucibles, linings for furnaces, kilns, ovens and incinerators. A practical requirement is the ability of the material to withstand temperatures above 1100oC without softening.
  • Riser – A riser is an extra void created in the mold that will also fill with molten metal. It provides a reservoir of molten metal that flow into the mold cavity to compensate for any shrinkage during solidification.
  • Runners – Runners are the horizontal part of the gating system that is connected to the gate.
  • Slag – Are by-product of melting metals. They are composed of metal oxides and sulfides. The assist in melt temperature control and minimize oxidation of the liquid metal before casting.
  • Sprue – From the pouring cup, the molten metal travels down the sprue the vertical part of the gating system that connects with the runners.
  • Vents – Vents are additional channels providing an escape for the gasses that are generated within the mold.
  • Wedge Chill Test – Indicates the chilling tendencies of cast iron melt which is related to melting conditions, chemical composition and casting section thickness.

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