TESDA TRAINING REGULATIONS FOR FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III
The TESDA Course for FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III consists of competencies that a person must achieve to melt aluminum-silicon alloys for safety tested castings; melt Metals using coreless induction furnace and melt automotive gray iron castings in cupola.
This Qualification is packaged from the competency map of the Automotive Industry (Manufacturing sub-sector)
A student who has achieved this TESDA Course in FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III is competent to be:
- Foundry Alloy Melter
FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III – TRAINING AND REGULATION MODULE
Course Title: FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING
Level: NC III
Nominal Training Duration : 108 Hours
This course is designed to equip individual the competencies that a person must achieve to be able to melt aluminum-silicon alloys for safety tested castings; melt Metals using coreless induction furnace and melt automotive gray iron castings in cupola.
Basic competencies such as: Lead workplace communication; Lead small teams; Develop and practice negotiation skills; Solve problems related to work activities; Use mathematical concepts and techniques and Use relevant technologies are included.
It also includes common competencies such as: Read, Interpret and Apply Engineering Drawings; Perform Mensuration and Calculation Read; Interpret and Apply Specifications and Manuals and; Perform Shop Maintenance.
TRAINEE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS
This section specifies the qualifications of trainees and educational experience. Other requirements like health and physical requirements are also stated. Passing entry written examinations may also be indicated if necessary.
- With 2 year experience in basic foundry melting
- Ability to communicate both orally and in written; and
- Physically and mentally fit
- Must possess the Foundry-Melting/ Casting National Certificate NC II or equivalent qualification in foundry molding and/or maintenance
COMPETENCIES REQUIRED IN FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III
This units of competency comprising this qualification include Basic, Common, Elective and Core Competencies.
To obtain this TESDA Course in FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III, all units prescribed below for this qualification must be achieved.
These units of competency comprising this qualification include the following:
|UNIT CODE||CORE COMPETENCIES (68 hours)|
|ALT812315||Melt Aluminum-Silicon Alloys for Safety Tested Castings|
|ALT812316||Melt Metals Using Coreless Induction Furnace|
|ALT812317||Melt Automotive Gray Iron Castings in Cupola|
|UNIT CODE||COMMON COMPETENCIES (20 hours)|
|ALT742201||Read & Interpret Engineering Drawings|
|ALT311202||Perform Mensuration and Calculation|
|ALT723203||Read, Interpret and Apply Specifications and Manuals|
|ALT723205||Perform Shop Maintenance|
|UNIT CODE||BASIC COMPETENCIES (20 hours)|
|500311109||Lead Workplace Communication|
|500311110||Lead Small Teams|
|500311111||Develop and Practice Negotiation skills|
|500311112||Solve Problems Related to Work Activities|
|500311113||Use Mathematical Concepts and Techniques|
|500311114||Use Relevant Technologies|
This section gives the details of the contents of the core units of competency required in FOUNDRY MELTING/CASTING NC III
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MELT ALUMINUM-SILICON ALLOYS FOR SAFETY TESTED CASTINGS
UNIT CODE : ALT812315
This unit covers melting of appropriate aluminum silicon alloys for safety tested casting melted in a gas or oil fired furnace, using gravity die casting or low-pressure die casting method except aviation parts.
- Identify job requirement
- Casting alloy requirements identified as per manufacturers / suppliers catalogue, drawings, instruction sheets.
- Required specifications are cross checked with corresponding international specification
- Casting method is determined by available die or mold (gravity or low-pressure die casting).
- Metal treatment is determined based on available product bulletin.
- Appropriate melting furnace selected as per required metal treatment and type of crucible (stationary / dip-out or tilting).
- Establish melting and melt treatment process.
- Metal charges are fed as per standard operating procedures.
- Appropriate fluxing technique is performed based on composition of metal charges (virgin ingot and recycled scrap).
- Furnace is started up as per standard operating procedures.
- Appropriate degassing technique is applied as per standard operating procedures.
- Melt refining agent of the alloy is added as per standard operating procedures.
- Structured modification of the alloy is applied as per standard operating procedures.
- Speed of melting is monitored to avoid oxidation.
- Pouring temperature is determined corresponding to the alloy and casting section thickness.
- Filtration method and location is decided on corresponding o the alloy
- Metal is tapped from crucible with minimum turbulence to avoid oxide formations.
- Pouring is accomplished in accordance with OH & S requirements
- Identify casting quality requirement.
- Casting quality requirements is identified based on job requirements
- Content of contaminants which will affect integrity of the casting is identified in accordance with procedures.
- Structural modification is applied in accordance with procedures,
- Availability of chemical analysis results is coordinated with other section such as process control
- Written procedures to be followed during castings is established as per quality Handbook.
- Identify casting defects cause by unsound melting technique.
- Nature of casting defects, its causes and the appropriate remedial actions is identified in accordance with standard operating procedures.
- Cause / effect analysis of the defect and other tools of quality control is presented in coordination with the process engineer.
- Defective castings which showed up in machining and painting section are coordinated with the respective sections in accordance with company procedures
- Action plan to resolve the persistent casting defect is formulated and implemented (vital few / trivial many) in accordance with company procedures.
- Personnel involved in melting are re-oriented on correct melting and treatment of aluminum-silicon alloy.
- Result of quality inspection is analyzed and measures are recommended to quality
- Recycle scraps / turnings.
- Re-melting is accomplished in accordance with company standard operating procedures
- Dross is completely removed from the melt before pouring into pig ingot molds.
- Ingot type is labeled as per standard operating procedures
- Melt contamination is avoided by coating all tools which comes into contact with the melt.
- Production reports are entered in pro-form with some comment / recommendation for future production reference.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MELT METALS USING CORELESS INDUCTION FURNACE
UNIT CODE : ALT812316
This unit covers implementation of Quality Assurance and Control in Induction Furnace Melting, which would include low frequency, medium frequency and high frequency furnaces, melting a wide range of metals and the operational maintenance of the furnace crucible.
- Identify job requirements.
- Melting and casting requirements identified as per manufacturers/ suppliers catalogue, drawings, customer requirements and instruction sheet
- Metal composition and casting properties is determined in accordance with standard operating procedures.
- Charge materials / ferro-alloys requirement are determined based cast metal requirements.
- Melting / pouring temperature range are determined based cast metal requirements.
- Establish melting procedure
- Melting procedure is written down as per standard operating procedure.
- Raw materials, ferro-alloys and additives are specified as per procedures
- Incoming materials are inspected as per standard operating procedure.
- Perform material inspection.
- Material inspection is performed in accordance with the checklist provided
- Retention is recorded (furnace log-book or record file per material) as per company procedure.
- Control melting process.
- Furnace is prepared and started up as per standard operating procedures.
- Furnace is charged as per standard operating procedures.
- Chemical composition is analyzed either by emission spectrometric method or thermal analysis and corrective measures are undertaken to attain required composition.
- Required alloying element and deoxidant is added to the melt as per standard operating procedures
- Inoculation is performed to improve metal properties in accordance with recommended inoculation procedures and techniques.
- Melt change-over procedure is undertaken in accordance with standard operating procedures
- Molten metal is performed applying the recommended pouring technique.
- Production data is recorded in accordance with company requirements
- Maintain furnace crucible
- Crucible lining is inspected and findings are noted, in logbook in accordance with company requirements
- Corrective measures are undertaken to restore the crucible lining to working condition
- Task is accomplished in accordance with OH & S requirements
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : MELT AUTOMOTIVE GRAY IRON CASTINGS IN CUPOLA
UNIT CODE : ALT812317
This unit covers melting of automotive truck, tractor, and allied industries gray iron casting using cupola as a basic melter in conjunction with a holding furnace or induction furnace as refiner. This unit applies to melting of automotive grades gray iron castings used in the production of automobile, trucks, tractors and allied industries as covered by ASTM-A159.
- Identify casting requirement
- Mechanical and physical properties of gray cast iron casting are determined from product drawing, industrial standards, instruction sheet and technical bulletins or specific standards such as ASTM-A159, ASTM-247 and E-10.
- Base metal is selected based on ASTM-159 specifications
- Specific location of hardness and micro-structure tests identified based on customer requirements.
- Other relevant requirement is determined according to customer requirements i.e. heat-treatment, metal processing.
- Select melting materials.
- High-grade raw materials are selected must be, consistent with automotive grade casting.
- Charge analysis is undertaken and converted to appropriate furnace charge.
- Requisitions are completed as required according to standard operating procedures.
- Furnace charge is weighed according to standard operating procedures.
- Melt base iron
- Cupola furnace is prepared as per standard operating procedures.
- Cupola furnace is charged as per standard operating procedures.
- Cupola melt is monitored including testing of chemical composition and melt temperature as per standard operating procedures.
- Adapt corrective measures are undertaken to attain required chemical composition.
- Wedge chill testing is conducted and rectification measures are undertaken to attain desired results.
- Molten metal is transferred to cupola fore-hearth as per standard operating procedures.
- Perform duplexing and control activities.
- Molten metal is transferred to an induction furnace duplexing furnace in accordance with standard operating procedures and OH & S requirements.
- Metal is desulfurized (0.02% MAX) if making nodular (Ductile) cast iron, before transferring to the induction furnace as per standard operating procedures.
- Required alloying element is added to the melt as per standard operating procedures.
- Chemical composition analysis is undertaken and adjusted, if required, as per standard operating procedures.
- Metal temperature is raised to tapping value and wedge chill test undertaken as per standard operating procedures.
- Molten metal is transferred to pouring ladle for inoculation and pouring as per standard operating procedures.
- Perform inoculation procedures
- Appropriate inoculants is selected compatible with type of casting, its size and section thickness.
- Inoculation is performed to improve metal properties in accordance with recommended inoculation procedures and techniques.
- Wedge chill value is taken before and after inoculation as per standard operating procedures.
- “Dead melt” time and pouring time is control as per standard operating procedures.
- Conduct gray iron casting testing and inspection.
- Agreement is secured from the customer regarding what to test, where to test which will correspond with ASTM standards or JIS standards, as the case maybe.
- Visual inspection is conducted using “color check” or dye penetrants.
- Dimensional inspection is performed as per standard operating procedures.
- File test is performed to determine chills on casting edges.
- Other standard method of inspection is implemented assume casting integrity.
- Repair agreement is secured from the customer as to location of defect and its extent.
- Scrap diagnosis is spearheaded and coordinated with machine shop and process engineering personnel.
COMMON COMPETENCIES (AUTOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING)
UNIT TITLE: READ, INTERPRET AND APPLY ENGINEERING DRAWINGS.
UNIT CODE: ALT742201
This unit deals with identifying, interpreting and applying specification from Engineering blue prints or drawings that provides the measurements of the product and pattern that is to be produced.
- Identify and access engineering drawings/specification
- Appropriate Engineering drawings are identified and accessed as per job requirements.
- Version and date of drawing is checked to ensure correct specification and procedure are identified.
- Interpret drawings
- Relevant dimensions and sections of the drawings/specifications are located in relation to the work to be conducted
- Information in the manual are interpreted in accordance to industry practices
- Apply information in the drawings & specifications
- Engineering drawing is interpreted according to job requirements
- Work steps are correctly identified in accordance with the specifications in the drawings.
- Dimensional data and shape are applied according to the given task
- Store drawings
- The drawings and specification are stored properly to ensure prevention of damage, ready access and updating of information when required in accordance with company requirements
UNIT OF COMPETENCY: PERFORM MENSURATION AND CALCULATION
UNIT CODE: ALT311202
This unit includes identifying, caring for, handling, using and maintaining measuring instruments.
- Select measuring instruments
- Object or component to be measured is identified
- Correct specifications are obtained from relevant source
- Appropriate measuring instrument is selected according to job requirements
- Carry out measurements and calculation
- Measuring tools are selected in line with job requirements
- Accurate measurements are obtained to job
- Calculation needed to complete work tasks are performed using the four basic process of addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (x) and division (/).
- Calculations involving fractions, percentages and mixed numbers are used to complete workplace tasks.
- Numerical computation is self-checked and corrected for accuracy
- Instruments are read to the limit of accuracy of the tool.
- Maintain measuring instruments
- Measuring instruments are kept free from corrosion
- Measuring instruments are not dropped to avoid damage
- Measuring instruments are cleaned before and after using.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY: READ, INTERPRET AND APPLY SPECIFICATION AND MANUALS.
UNIT CODE: ALT723203
This unit deals with identifying, interpreting and applying service specification manuals, maintenance procedure manuals and periodic maintenance manual.
- Identify and access manual/specification
- Appropriate manuals are identified and accessed as per job requirements.
- Version and date of manual is checked to ensure correct specification and procedure are identified.
- Interpret manuals
- Relevant sections, chapters of manuals/specifications are located in relations to the work to be conducted
- Information and procedure in the manual are interpreted in accordance to industry practices
- Apply information in manual
- Manual is interpreted according to job requirements
- Work steps are correctly identified in accordance with manufacturer specification
- Manual data is applied according to the given task
- All correct sequencing and adjustments are interpreted in accordance with information contained on the manual or specifications
- Store manuals
- Manual or specification are stored appropriately to ensure prevention of damage, ready access and updating of information when required in accordance with company requirements
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : PERFORM SHOP MAINTENANCE
UNIT CODE : ALT723205
This unit deals with inspecting and cleaning of work area including tools, equipment and facilities. Storage and checking of tools/ equipment and disposal of used supplies/materials are also incorporated in this competency.
- Inspect/clean tools and work area
- Cleaning solvent used as per workshop/tools cleaning requirement
- Work area is checked and cleaned
- Wet surface/spot in work area is wiped and dried
- Store/arrange tools and shop equipment
- Tools/equipment are checked and stored in their respective shelves/location
- Corresponding labels are posted and visible
- Tools are safely secured and logged in the records
- Dispose wastes/used lubricants
- Containers for used lubricants are visibly labeled
- Wastes/used lubricants are disposed as per workshop SOP
- Report damaged tools/equipment
- Complete inventory of tools/equipment is maintained
- Damaged tools/equipment/facilities are identified and repair recommendation is given
- Reports prepared has no error/discrepancy
The BASIC COMPETENCIES refer to non-technical skills (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that everybody will need in order to perform satisfactorily at work and in society and are considered portable and transferable irrespective of jobs and industrial settings.
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : LEAD WORKPLACE COMMUNICATION
UNIT CODE : 500311109
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to lead in the dissemination and discussion of ideas, information and issues in the workplace.
- Communicate information about workplace processes
- Appropriate communication method is selected
- Multiple operations involving several topics areas are communicated accordingly
- Questions are used to gain extra information
- Correct sources of information are identified
- Information is selected and organized correctly
- Verbal and written reporting is undertaken when required
- Communication skills are maintained in all situations
- Lead workplace discussions
- Response to workplace issues are sought
- Response to workplace issues are provided immediately
- Constructive contributions are made to workplace discussions on such issues as production, quality and safety
- Goals/objectives and action plan undertaken in the workplace are communicated
- Identify and communicate issues arising in the workplace
- Issues and problems are identified as they arise
- Information regarding problems and issues are organized coherently to ensure clear and effective communication
- Dialogue is initiated with appropriate personnel
- Communication problems and issues are raised as they arise
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : LEAD SMALL TEAMS
UNIT CODE : 500311110
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes to lead small teams including setting and maintaining team and individual performance standards.
- Provide team leadership
- Work requirements are identified and presented to team members
- Reasons for instructions and requirements are communicated to team members
- Team members’ queries and concerns are recognized, discussed and dealt with
- Assign responsibilities
- Duties, and responsibilities are allocated having regard to the skills, knowledge and aptitude required to properly undertake the assigned task and according to company policy
- Duties are allocated having regard to individual preference, domestic and personal considerations, whenever possible
- Set performance expectations for team members
- Performance expectations are established based on client needs and according to assignment requirements
- Performance expectations are based on individual team members duties and area of responsibility
- Performance expectations are discussed and disseminated to individual team members
- Supervised team performance
- Monitoring of performance takes place against defined performance criteria and/or assignment instructions and corrective action taken if required
- Team members are provided with feedback, positive support and advice on strategies to overcome any deficiencies
- Performance issues which cannot be rectified or addressed within the team are referenced to appropriate personnel according to employer policy
- Team members are kept informed of any changes in the priority allocated to assignments or tasks which might impact on client/customer needs and satisfaction
- Team operations are monitored to ensure that employer/client needs and requirements are met
- Follow-up communication is provided on all issues affecting the team
- All relevant documentation is completed in accordance with company procedures
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : DEVELOP AND PRACTICE NEGOTIATION SKILLS
UNIT CODE : 500311111
This unit covers the skills, knowledge and attitudes required to collect information in order to negotiate to a desired outcome and participate in the negotiation.
- Plan negotiations
- Information on preparing for negotiation is identified and included in the plan
- Information on creating non verbal environments for positive negotiating is identified and included in the plan
- Information on active listening is identified and included in the plan
- Information on different questioning techniques is identified and included in the plan
- Information is checked to ensure it is correct and up-to- date
- Participate in negotiations
- Criteria for successful outcome are agreed upon by all parties
- Desired outcome of all parties are considered
- Appropriate language is used throughout the negotiation
- A variety of questioning techniques are used
- The issues and processes are documented and agreed upon by all parties
- Possible solutions are discussed and their viability assessed
- Areas for agreement are confirmed and recorded
- Follow-up action is agreed upon by all parties
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : SOLVE PROBLEMS RELATED TO WORK ACTIVITIES
UNIT CODE : 500311112
This unit of covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to solve problems in the workplace including the application of problem solving techniques and to determine and resolve the root cause of problems.
- Identify the problem
- Variances are identified from normal operating parameters; and product quality
- Extent, cause and nature are of the problem are defined through observation, investigation and analytical techniques
- Problems are clearly stated and specified
- Determine fundamental causes of the problem
- Possible causes are identified based on experience and the use of problem solving tools / analytical techniques.
- Possible cause statements are developed based on findings
- Fundamental causes are identified per results of investigation conducted
- Determine corrective action
- All possible options are considered for resolution of the problem
- Strengths and weaknesses of possible options are considered
- Corrective actions are determined to resolve the problem and possible future causes
- Action plans are developed identifying measurable objectives, resource needs and timelines in accordance with safety and operating procedures
- Provide recommendation/s to manager
- Report on recommendations are prepared
- Recommendations are presented to appropriate personnel.
- Recommendations are followed-up, if required
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : USE MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS AND TECHNIQUES
UNIT CODE : 500311113
This unit covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in the application of mathematical concepts and techniques.
- Identify mathematical tools and techniques to solve problem
- Problem areas are identified based on given condition
- Mathematical techniques are selected based on the given problem
- Apply mathematical procedure/solution
- Mathematical techniques are applied based on the problem identified
- Mathematical computations are performed to the level of accuracy required for the problem
- Results of mathematical computation is determined and verified based on job requirements
- Analyze results
- Result of application is reviewed based on expected and required specifications and outcome
- Appropriate action is applied in case of error
UNIT OF COMPETENCY : USE RELEVANT TECHNOLOGIES
UNIT CODE : 500311114
This unit of competency covers the knowledge, skills, and attitude required in selecting, sourcing and applying appropriate and affordable technologies in the workplace.
- Study/select appropriate technology
- Usage of different technologies is determined based on job requirements
- Appropriate technology is selected as per work specification
- Apply relevant technology
- Relevant technology is effectively used in carrying out function
- Applicable software and hardware are used as per task requirement
- Management concepts are observed and practiced as per established industry practices
- Maintain/enhance relevant technology
- Maintenance of technology is applied in accordance with the industry standard operating procedure, manufacturer’s operating guidelines and occupational health and safety procedure to ensure its operative ability
- Updating of technology is maintained through continuing education or training in accordance with job requirement
- Technology failure/ defect is immediately reported to the concern/responsible person or section for appropriate action
DEFINITION OF TERMS (FOUNDRY)
- Alloy – An alloy is a homogeneous blend of two or more elements at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material as metallic properties.
- Carbon Dioxide Process – Carbon Dioxide Process consist of mixing a clean dry silica sand with a silicate binder, compacting the mixture to shape and hardening it by passing carbon dioxide gas.
- Casting – Casting is the term used to describe both the process and the product when molten metal is poured and solidified in a mold.
4. Chemical Analysis – Analytical chemistry is the science that seeks ever improved means of measuring the chemical composition of natural and artificial materials.
- Cope – In a two-part mold, the cope is the name given to the top half of the pattern, flask, mold, or core.
- Core – The core is a sand shape that is inserted into the mold to produce the internal features of a casting, such as, holes or passages for water-cooling.
- Core Box – A core box is the mold or die used to produce casting cores.
- Core Print – The core print is the region added to the pattern, core, or mold that is used to locate and support the core within the mold.
- Draft – Draft is the taper on a pattern or casting that permits it to be withdrawn from the mold.
- Drag – The drag is the bottom part of the two-part mold.
- Dross – Dross is a mass of solid impurities floating on a molten metal bath. It appears usually on the melting of low melting point metals or alloys such as aluminum, copper, magnesium or each alloys.
- Fettle / Finishing – The process of cleaning the casting, removal of excess metal, grinding and inspection operation which may be required for some casting process.
- Flask – The flask is the box that contains the molding aggregate.
- Foundry – A Foundry is a factory which produces metal castings from either ferrous or non-ferrous alloys.
- Furnace – Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it.
- Gate – Gate is controlled entrances to the mold cavity.
- Gating System – Gating system is the network of channels used to deliver the molten metal to the mold cavity.
- Green Sand – The term Green Sand refers to that molded sand mixture which is allowed to remain moist and is used in casting ferrous and non-ferrous metals.
- Melting – The process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gasses and elements from the molten metal. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific range specified by industry and/or internal standards. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made.
- Molding – Is the process of making the mold cavity with a necessary allowances such as shrinkage, machining, taper, and surface finish. Usually it is done with green sand as the molding medium.
- Mold Cavity – The mold cavity is the shaped hole into which the molten metal is poured and solidified to produce the desired casting.
- Parting Line – Parting Line or Parting Surface is the interface that separates the cope and drag halves of a mold, flask, or pattern. The same part can also be found in some core making processes.
- Pattern – The pattern is the approximate copy of the final casting. The molding material (sand for sand molds) is then packed around the pattern and the pattern is removed to produce the mold cavity.
- Pattern Shrinkage Allowance – Dimensions added to the pattern to compensate for the solid shrinkage or contraction occurs in the solidified casting as it cools to room / ambient temperature.
- Pouring Cup – A Pouring Cup or Pouring Basin is the portion of the gating system that initially receives the molten metal from the pouring vessel and controls its delivery to rest of the mold.
- Refractories – Refers to materials that are used to make crucibles, linings for furnaces, kilns, ovens and incinerators. A practical requirement is the ability of the material to withstand temperatures above 1100oC without softening.
- Riser – A riser is an extra void created in the mold that will also fill with molten metal. It provides a reservoir of molten metal that flow into the mold cavity to compensate for any shrinkage during solidification.
- Runners – Runners are the horizontal part of the gating system that is connected to the gate.
- Slag By-product of melting metals. They are composed of metal oxides and sulfides. The assist in melt temperature control and minimize oxidation of the liquid metal before casting.
- Sprue – From the pouring cup, the molten metal travels down the sprue the vertical part of the gating system that connects with the runners.
- Vents – Vents are additional channels providing an escape for the gasses that are generated within the mold.
- Wedge Chill Test – Indicates the chilling tendencies of cast iron melt which is related to melting conditions, chemical composition and casting section thickness.